Coral Reefs

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 321–334 | Cite as

Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure

  • S. D. Jupiter
  • R. Weeks
  • A. P. Jenkins
  • D. P. Egli
  • A. Cakacaka
Report

Abstract

In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect−1, 8,145.8 kg ha−1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect−1, 4,672.1 kg ha−1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect−1, 594.0 kg ha−1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a “bail-out” effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

Keywords

Marine protected areas Customary management Tabu areas Coral reef fisheries Periodic harvest Fiji 

Supplementary material

338_2012_888_MOESM1_ESM.doc (248 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 248 kb)

References

  1. Abesamis RA, Russ GR (2005) Density-dependent spillover from a marine reserve: long-term evidence. Ecol Appl 15:1798–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcala A, Russ GR, Maypa AP, Calumpong HP (2005) A long-term, spatially replicated experimental test of the effect of marine reserves on local fish yields. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62:98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol 26:32–46Google Scholar
  4. Anderson MJ, Willis TJ (2003) Canonical analysis of principal coordinates: A useful method of constrained ordination for ecology. Ecology 84:511–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson MJ, Gorley RN, Clarke KR (2008) PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: guide to software and statistical methods. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashworth JS, Ormond RFG (2005) Effects of fishing pressure and trophic group on abundance and spillover across boundaries of a no-take zone. Biol Conserv 121:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aswani S, Hamilton RJ (2004) Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure with marine and social science for conservation of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands. Environ Conserv 31:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aswani S, Christie P, Muthiga NA, Mahon R, Primavera JH, Cramer LA, Barbier EB, Granek EF, Kennedy CJ, Wolanski E, Hacker SD (2012) The way forward with ecosystem-based management in tropical contexts: Reconciling with existing management systems. Mar Policy 36:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babcock RC, Shears NT, Alcala AC, Barrett NS, Edgar GJ, Lafferty KD, McClanahan TR, Russ GR (2010) Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in direct and indirect effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 43:18256–18261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ban NC, Adams V, Almany GR, Ban S, Cinner J, McCook LJ, Mills M, Pressey RL, White A (2011) Designing, implementing and managing marine protected areas: emerging trends and opportunities for coral reef nations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 408:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartlett CY, Manua C, Cinner JE, Sutton S, Jimmy R, South R, Nilsson J, Raina J (2009a) Comparison of outcomes of permanently closed and periodically harvested coral reef reserves. Conserv Biol 23:1475–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartlett CY, Pakoa K, Manua C (2009b) Marine reserve phenomenon in the Pacific islands. Mar Policy 33:673–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonaldo RM, Bellwood DR (2011) Spatial variation in the effects of grazing on epilithic algal turfs on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 30:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Byers JE, Noonburg EG (2007) Poaching, enforcement, and the efficacy of marine reserves. Ecol Appl 17:1851–1856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Choat H, Bellwood DR (1985) Interactions amongst herbivorous fishes on a coral reef: influence of spatial variation. Mar Biol 89:221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cinner J, Aswani S (2007) Integrating customary management into the conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. Biol Conserv 140:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cinner JE, Marnane MJ, McClanahan TR (2005) Conservation and community benefits from traditional coral reef management at Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea. Conserv Biol 19:1714–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cinner JE, Marnane MJ, McClanahan TR, Almany GR (2006) Periodic closures as adaptive coral reef management in the Indo-Pacific. Ecology and Society 11: 31 http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss31/art31
  19. Cinner JE, Sutton SG, Bond TG (2007) Socioeconomic thresholds that affect use of customary fisheries management tools. Conserv Biol 21:1603–1611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke P, Jupiter SD (2010) Law, custom and community-based natural resource management in Kubulau District (Fiji). Environ Conserv 37:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen P, Foale S (2011) Fishing taboos: Securing Pacific fisheries for the future? SPC Trad Mar Res Manage Knowl Inf Bull 28:3–13Google Scholar
  22. Denny CM, Babcock RC (2004) Do partial marine reserves protect reef fish assemblages? Biol Conserv 116:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Di Franco A, Bussotti S, Navone A, Panzalis P, Guidetti P (2009) Evaluating effects of total and partial restrictions to fishing on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 387:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eggleston DB, Parsons DM (2008) Disturbance-induced ‘spill-in’ of Caribbean spiny lobster to marine reserves. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 371:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans RD, Russ GR, Kritzer JP (2008) Batch fecundity of Lutjanus carponotatus (Lutjanidae) and implications of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 27:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foale S, Manele B (2004) Social and political barriers to the use of Marine Protected Areas for conservation and fishery management in Melanesia. Asia Pac Viewpoint 45:373–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Foale S, Cohen P, Januchowski-Hartley S, Wenger A, Macintyre M (2011) Tenure and taboos: origins and implications for fisheries in the Pacific. Fish Fish 12:357–369Google Scholar
  28. Froese R, Pauly D (2009) FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org
  29. Goetze JS, Langlois TJ, Egli DP, Harvey ES (2011) Evidence of artisanal fishing impacts and depth refuge in assemblages of Fijian reef fish. Coral Reefs 30:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gotanda KM, Turgeon K, Kramer DL (2009) Body size and reserve protection affect flight initiation distance in parrotfishes. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1563–1572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Govan H, Tawake A, Tabunakawai K, Jenkins A, Lasgorceix A, Schwarz A-M, Aalbersberg B, Manele B, Vieux C, Notere D, Afzal D, Techera E, Rasalato ET, Sykes H, Walton H, Tafea H, Korovulavula I, Comley J, Kinch J, Feehely J, Petit J, Heaps L, Anderson P, Cohen P, Ifopo P, Vave R, Hills R, Tawakelevu S, Alefaio S, Meo S, Troniak S, Malimali S, Kukuian S, George S, Tauaefa T, Obed T (2009) Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the South Pacific: meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs. SPREP/WWF/WorldFish-Reefbase/CRISP, Suva, Fiji. (http://www.spc.int/DigitalLibrary/Doc/FAME/Reports/Govan_09_Status_LMMAs.pdf)
  32. Januchowski-Hartley FA, Graham NAJ, Feary DA, Morove T, Cinner JE (2011) Fear of fishers: human predation explains behavioural changes in coral reef fishes. PLoS ONE 6:e22761. doi:22710.21371/journal.pone.0022761 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jupiter SD, Egli DP (2011) Ecosystem-based management in Fiji: successes and challenges after five years of implementation. J Mar Biol. doi:940710.941155/942011/940765 Google Scholar
  34. Lester SE, Halpern BS, Grorud-Colvert K, Lubchenco J, Ruttenberg BI, Gaines SD, Airame S, Warner RR (2009) Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 384:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maliao RJ, White AT, Maypa AP, Turingan RG (2009) Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis. Coral Reefs 28:809–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McArdle BH, Anderson MJ (2001) Fitting multivariate models to community data: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis. Ecology 82:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ (2005) Recovery trajectories of coral reef fish assemblages within Kenyan marine protected areas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 294:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McClanahan TR, Marnane MJ, Cinner JE, Kiene WE (2006) A comparison of marine protected areas and alternate approaches to coral-reef management. Curr Biol 16:1408–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ, Calnan JM, MacNeil MA (2007a) Toward pristine biomass: reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya. Ecol Appl 17:1055–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ, Maina J, Chabanet P, Bruggemann JH, Polunin NVC (2007b) Influence of instantaneous variation on estimates of coral reef fish populations and communities. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 340:221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McCook LJ, Ayling T, Cappo M, Choat H, Evans RD, DeFrietas DM, Heupel M, Hughes TP, Jones GP, Mapstone B, Marsh H, Mills M, Molloy FJ, Pitcher CR, Pressey RL, Russ GR, Sutton S, Sweatman H, Tobin R, Wachenfeld DR, Williamson DH (2010) Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:18278–18285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mills M, Jupiter SD, Pressey RL, Ban NC, Comley J (2011) Incorporating effectiveness of community-based management strategies in a national marine gap analysis for Fiji. Conserv Biol 25:1155–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mumby PJ, Steneck RS (2008) Coral reef management and conservation in light of rapidly evolving ecological paradigms. Trends Ecol Evol 23:555–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robertson DR, Polunin NVC, Leighton K (1979) The behavioural ecology of three Indian Ocean surgeonfishes (Acanthurus lineatus, A. leucosternon and Zebrasoma scopas): their feeding strategies, and social and mating systems. Environ Biol Fish 4:125–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ruddle K, Hickey F (2008) Accounting for the mismanagement of tropical nearshore fisheries. Environ Dev Sustain 10:565–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Russ GR, Alcala AC (1998) Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983–1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses. Coral Reefs 17:399–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Russ GR, Alcala AC (2003) Marine reserves: rates and patterns of recovery and decline of predatory fish, 1983–2000. Ecol Appl 13:1553–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Russ GR, Alcala AC (2004) Marine reserves: long-term protection is required for full recovery of predatory fish populations. Oecologia 138:1432–1939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Seidel H (2009) Evaluating the role of science in Community Based Adaptive Management of coastal resources in Fiji. University of Bremen, 101 pp (http://www.reefbase.org/download/download.aspx?type=10&docid=A0000005290_1)
  50. Sutinen JG, Kuperan K (1999) A socio-economic theory of regulatory compliance. Int J Soc Econ 26:174–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tawake A, Meo S, Cakacaka A, Aalbersberg B (2004) Community based biological monitoring training guide. Application: FLMMA project sites at Tagaqe Village, Tikina Korolevu-i-wai, Nadroga. University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji (http://www.reefbase.org/download/open_download.aspx?type=10&docid=C0000000054_1)
  52. Vine PJ (1974) Effects of algal grazing and aggressive behaviour of the fishes Pomacentrus lividus and Acanthurus sohal on coral-reef ecology. Mar Biol 24:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. WCS (2009) Ecosystem-Based Management Plan: Kubulau District, Vanua Levu, Fiji. Wildlife Conservation Society, Suva, Fiji (http://www.wcsfiji.org/Resources/ManagementPlans/tabid/3431/Default.aspx)
  54. Westera M, Lavery P, Hyndes G (2003) Differences in recreationally targeted fishes between protected and fished areas of a coral reef marine park. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 294:145–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams ID, Walsh WJ, Miyasaka A, Friedlander AM (2006) Effects of rotational closure on coral reef fishes in Waikiki-Diamond Head Fishery Management Area, Oahu, Hawaii. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 310:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Jupiter
    • 1
  • R. Weeks
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. P. Jenkins
    • 3
  • D. P. Egli
    • 1
  • A. Cakacaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Wildlife Conservation SocietyFiji Country ProgramSuvaFiji
  2. 2.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Wetlands International-OceaniaSuvaFiji

Personalised recommendations