Uptake of picophytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton by a fringing coral reef community (Ningaloo Reef, Australia)

Abstract

We examined the importance of picoplankton and virioplankton to reef trophodynamics at Ningaloo Reef, (north-western Australia), in May and November 2008. Picophytoplankton (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes), bacterioplankton (inclusive of bacteria and Archaea), virioplankton and chlorophyll a (Chl a) were measured at five stations following the consistent wave-driven unidirectional mean flow path of seawater across the reef and into the lagoon. Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and bacterioplankton were depleted to similar levels (~40% on average) over the fore reef, reef crest and reef flat (=‘active reef’), with negligible uptake occurring over the sandy bottom lagoon. Depletion of virioplankton also occurred but to more variable levels. Highest uptake rates, m, of picoplankton occurred over the reef crest, while uptake coefficients, S (independent of cell concentration), were similarly scaled over the reef zones, indicating no preferential uptake of any one group. Collectively, picophytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton accounted for the uptake of 29 mmol C m−2 day−1, with Synechococcus contributing the highest proportion of the removed C. Picoplankton and virioplankton accounted for 1–5 mmol N m−2 day−1 of the removed N, with bacterioplankton estimated to be a highly rich source of N. Results indicate the importance of ocean–reef interactions and the dependence of certain reef organisms on picoplanktonic supply for reef-level biogeochemistry processes.

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Acknowledgments

We thank D. Krikke, F. McGregor, S. Hinrichs, A. Chalmers and K. Meyers for assistance in the field. Funding was provided by grants from the University of Western Australia (UWA), The Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Mathematical Sciences and the Western Australian Marine Science Institution (Node 3) to A.M.W.; an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grant #DP0663670 to A.M.W. et al., an ARC Discovery Grant #DP0770094 to R.J.L. and postdoctoral research funding from UWA and The Australian Institute of Marine Science to N.L.P. The authors acknowledge the facilities, scientific and technical assistance of the Australian Microscopy & Microanalysis Research Facility at the Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, UWA, a facility funded by The University, State and Commonwealth Governments. We finally thank two anonymous reviewers who provided valuable comments that improved this manuscript.

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ESM, Table 1

Conversion factors from literature values for estimates of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) biomass for picophytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton. (DOC 30 kb)

ESM, Table 2

Changes (given as cell numbers and as a %) in Prochlorococcus (Pro), Synechococcus (Syn), picoeukaryotes (Peuk), bacterioplankton (Bac) and virioplankton (Vir) between adjacent stations on individual sampling days in May and November 2008. Note that positive values indicate depletion (= uptake) of cells between adjacent stations. nd = not determined because samples from one or both stations were missing. (DOC 43 kb)

ESM, Fig. 1

Uptake rates m (× 109 cell m−2 d−1) versus cell concentrations (× 103 cells ml−1) over the reef crest and reef flat for (a) Prochlorococcus, (b) Synechococcus, (c) picoeukaryotes, (d) bacterioplankton and (e) virioplankton. Black closed circles denote values in May and open circles denote values in November 2008. Significant relationships occurred for (a) Prochlorococcus; r2 = 0.75, F1,16 = 48.76, p < 0.001, (b) Synechococcus: r2 = 0.60, F1,16 = 24.13, p < 0.001, (c) picoeukaryotes; r2 = 0.61, F1,16 = 24.89, p < 0.001 (lines represent the best least squares fit). The relationship was not significant for bacterioplankton; r2 = 0.13, F1,16 = 2.40, p = 0.14 and virioplankton; r2 = 0.07, F1,16 = 1.20, p = 0.288 (hence no regression lines are included). Note that the scaling of cell concentrations (x axis) and uptake rates m (y axis) differs for each group of cells. (EPS 443 kb)

ESM, Fig. 2

Positive uptake coefficients S (m d−1) versus current velocity U (m s−1) over thereef crest and reef flat for (a) Prochlorococcus, (b) Synechococcus, (c) picoeukaryotes, (d)heterotrophic microbes and (e) viruses. Black closed circles denote values in May and opencircles represent values in November 2008. Significant relationship between water velocity Uand reef crest and flat uptake coefficients S during May and Nov 2008 for (a)Prochlorococcus; r2 = 0.19; F1,8 = 4.01, p = 0.05, (b) Synechococcus; r2 = 0.63, F1,13 = 53.1, p< 0.001, (c) picoeukaryotes r2 = 0.41, F1,13 = 21.13, p < 0.001, (d) bacterioplankton; r2=0.27,F1,14 = 12.12, p < 0.01, and (e) virioplankton; r2 = 0.09, F1,8 = 2.56, p = 0.12. (EPS 3,497 kb)

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Patten, N.L., Wyatt, A.S.J., Lowe, R.J. et al. Uptake of picophytoplankton, bacterioplankton and virioplankton by a fringing coral reef community (Ningaloo Reef, Australia). Coral Reefs 30, 555 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-011-0777-8

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Keywords

  • Coral reef
  • Picoplankton
  • Virus
  • Uptake
  • Ningaloo Reef
  • Indian Ocean