Ex situ transportation of coral larvae for research, conservation, and aquaculture
- 290 Downloads
Due to the lack of appropriate methods to transport high amounts of larvae ex situ over large distances, the availability of coral larvae was so far mainly limited to their place of origin. For a research project at Rotterdam Zoo, The Netherlands, we transported several thousand larvae of three broadcast spawners (Acropora tenuis, A. digitifera, Diploria strigosa) from the Indo Pacific and the Caribbean to Europe. Beside logistics and packing techniques, post-transport survival rates were mainly influenced by larvae density and transport duration. Our results indicate optimum survival rates of >90% at densities of 4 larvae ml−1 when not exceeding a transportation time of 4 days. The ex situ transport of coral larvae over large distances might offer new possibilities for research, conservation, and aquaculture.
KeywordsCoral larvae Ex situ transportation Conservation Aquaculture
We are grateful to Makoto Omori for his generous hospitality at Akajima Marine Science Laboratory, Okinawa and to Kenji Iwao for his assistance in the field. We thank Maureen Kuenen, John Nijsse, Yukiko Ozawa and Martijn van der Veer for their help to collect gametes and to maintain larvae at Curaçao. Mirsada Mutapčić is acknowledged for carrying out the water analysis, Fernande Hazewinkel for assisting with the layout of the manuscript. DP was funded by the scholarship program of the German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU). MH was supported by the Showa Shell Foundation and the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research by the MEXT, Japan.
- Adey WH, Loveland K (1998) Dynamic aquaria: building living ecosystems. Academic, London, p 498Google Scholar
- Atkinson MJ, Carlson B, Crow GL (1995)a Coral growth in high-nutrient, low-pH seawater: a case study of corals cultured at the Waikiki Aquarium, Honolulu, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 14:215–223Google Scholar
- Bassim KM, Sammarco PW (2003) Effects of temperature and ammonium on larval development and survivorship in a scleractinian coral (Diploria strigosa). Mar Biol 142:241–252Google Scholar
- Green EP, Shirley F (1999) The global trade in coral. World Conservation Monitoring Centre. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, p 70Google Scholar
- Harrison PL, Wallace CC (1990) Reproduction, dispersal and recruitment of scleractinian corals. In: Dubinsky Z (ed) Ecosystems of the world, vol 25. Coral reefs. Elvesier, Amsterdam, pp 133–207Google Scholar
- IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC) (1993) The world zoo conservation strategy; the role of the zoos and aquaria of the world in global conservation. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Chicago, p 76Google Scholar
- Iwao K, Fujisawa T, Hatta M (2002) A cnidarian neuropeptide of the GLWamide family induces metamorphosis of reef-building corals in the genus Acropora. Coral Reefs 21:127–129Google Scholar
- Petersen D, Laterveer M, Van Bergen D, Hatta H, Hebbinghaus R, Janse M, Jones R, Richter U, Ziegler T, Visser G, Schuhmacher H (in press a) SECORE-Project—the application of sexual coral recruits for sustainable management of ex situ populations in public aquariums. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsGoogle Scholar
- Petersen D, Laterveer M, Schuhmacher H (in press b) Spatial and temporal variation in larval settlement of reefbuilding corals in mariculture. AquacultureGoogle Scholar
- Sorokin YI (1995) Coral reef ecology, vol 102. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 465Google Scholar