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Earliest evidence of a primitive cultivar of Vitis vinifera L. during the Bronze Age in Sardinia (Italy)

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Abstract

The discovery of the Nuragic culture settlement of Sa Osa, Cabras-Oristano, Sardinia, has made it possible to investigate the domestication status of waterlogged uncharred grape pips that were recovered from three wells dating from the Middle and Late Bronze Age (ca. 1350–1150 bc). Applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis method, a morphological comparison of archaeological seeds and modern wild and cultivated Sardinian grapes pips was performed to determine the similarities between them. The results showed that the archaeological seeds from the Middle Bronze Age have intermediate morphological traits between modern wild and cultivated grape pips from Sardinia. In contrast, the analyses performed on the archaeological seeds from the Late Bronze Age showed a high degree of similarity with the modern cultivars in Sardinia. These results provide the first evidence of primitive cultivated Vitis vinifera in Sardinia during the Late Bronze Age (1286–1115 cal bc, 2σ). This evidence may support the hypothesis that Sardinia could have been a secondary domestication centre of the grapevine, due to the presence of ancient cultivars that still exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of wild grapes.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici per le province di Cagliari e Oristano for allowing us to analyse the seeds from Sa Osa for this study. Special thanks to AGRIS for providing the ex situ experimental fields. Many thanks to Gianni Lovicu for providing important information about V. vinifera collections and Daniel Ballesteros Bargues and Angela Dettori for their revision of the English. The authors are grateful to James Greig for the stylistic improvements to this paper. This work was funded by a doctoral grant from the Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR).

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Ucchesu, M., Orrù, M., Grillo, O. et al. Earliest evidence of a primitive cultivar of Vitis vinifera L. during the Bronze Age in Sardinia (Italy). Veget Hist Archaeobot 24, 587–600 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-014-0512-9

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