Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 719–728 | Cite as

Palaeovegetation in the Pavlovské vrchy hills region (South Moravia, Czech Republic) around 25,000 bp: the Bulhary core

Original Article

Abstract

This paper presents results of pollen and macroscopic analyses of a geological core from the village of Bulhary, at the north-eastern foot of the limestone Pavlovské vrchy hills, South Moravia, Czech Republic. The core reached down to about 10 m of aeolic loess layers and some 40–50 cm of compressed organogenic sediments. They accumulated around ca 25,000 years bp. The moss peat and algal gyttja we have analysed were deposited in an ox-bow of the past flood-plain of the river Dyje. The time of the sedimentation may be synchronous with the time when the northern foot of the Pavlovské vrchy hills was inhabited by upper Palaeolithic people of the Gravettian (Pavlovian) culture, dated generally to an Upper Würmian interstadial. Archaeologists excavated their settlements in the villages of Dolní Věstonice and Pavlov, neighbouring our site of Bulhary. Our analyses permit the reconstruction of the vegetation of that time in the region but may also reveal the environment and living conditions of the Palaeolithic people. In our assemblages over 200 types of palynomorphs (pollen, spores, etc.) have been found, which indicates a very rich flora and vegetation growing in at least six different biotopes of the Pavlovské vrchy hills region: (1) Open, mostly coniferous stands with grass and herbaceous cover in their undergrowth. These were probably situated in the lowest parts of the territory and could also have dominated in the broader vicinity with loess cover. (2) Grass and herbaceous steppe-like vegetation probably occupied the belt above where the trees occurred but still within the loess zone. (3) The highest elevations of the hills and their limestone cliffs formed biotopes for a complex of subalpine (alpine) communities. (4) The flood plain was certainly occupied by very diversified tall-herb vegetation with scattered alder and willow trees or shrubs. (5) Aquatic communities of the infilled stages in the river ox-bows are well documented by microscopic and macroremain finds of water macrophytes, algae and mosses. (6) The presence of scattered spring outflows and their communities is indicated by pollen of typical spring plants, e.g. Chrysosplenium, Montia, Cardamine amara etc. The vegetation, especially that in the flood-plain, produced enough plant biomass to feed numerous herds of large herbivorous mammals, which were hunted by the Palaeolithic tribes. Also the climate was probably relatively suitable for the style of living at that time. It could have been similar to that of the present northern boreal zone of NE Scandinavia and N Russia or even milder.

Keywords

Czech Republic South Moravia Interstadial WII/WIII Gravettian–Pavlovian Pollen analyses Palaeovegetation Palaeoenvironment 

Supplementary material

334_2014_450_MOESM1_ESM.doc (37 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 37 kb)

References

  1. Beug HJ (2004) Leitfaden der pollenbestimmung. Pfeil, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  2. Boros A, Járai-Komlodi M (1975) An atlas of recent European moss spores. Academiai Kiadó, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  3. Brandtner F (1954) Jungpleistozäner Löss und fossile Böden in Niederösterreich. Eiszeitalter Gegenwart 4(5):49–82Google Scholar
  4. Chytrý M, Danihelka J, Kubešová S, Lustyk P, Ermakov N, Hájek M, Hájková P, Kočí M, Otypková Z, Roleček J, Řezníčková M, Šmarda P, Valachovič M, Pišút I (2008) Diversity of forest vegetation across a strong gradient of climatic continentality: western Sayana Mountains, southern Siberia. Plant Ecol 196:61–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chytrý M, Pavelková-Říčánková V, Horsák M (2010) Kde dnes znamená včera. Jihosibiřské refugium doby ledové (Where today means yesterday. Southsiberian refugium of the glacial time). Vesmír Praha 89:526–530Google Scholar
  6. Czudek T (1997) Das Relief Mährens und tschechischen Schlesiens im Quartär. Sursum, TišnovGoogle Scholar
  7. de Vries H (1958) Radiocarbon dates for upper Eem and Würm interstadial samples. Eiszeitalter Gegenwart 9:10–17Google Scholar
  8. Grimm EC (1990) Tilia and Tiliagraph: PC spreadsheet and graphics software for pollen data. INQUA Commision of the study of the Holocene, working group for data-handling methods. Newsletter 4:5–7Google Scholar
  9. Gross H (1958) Die bisherigen Ergebnisse von C14 Messungen und paläontologischen Untersuchungen für die Gliederung und Chronologie des Jungpleistozäns in Mitteleuropa und den Nachbargebieten. Eiszeitalter Gegenwart 9:155–187Google Scholar
  10. Havlíček P, Kovanda J (1985) Nové výzkumy kvartéru v okolí Pavlovských vrchů (Neue Quartärforschungen in der Umgebung der Hügelkette Pavlovské vrchy). Antropozoikum 16:21–59Google Scholar
  11. Hofmann E (1936) Pflanzenreste aus schlesischen Höhlen. In: Zotz E (ed) Die altsteinzeit in Niederschlesien, Leipzig, pp 119–120Google Scholar
  12. Horsák M, Chytrý M, Pokryszko BM, Danihelka J, Ermakov M, Hájek M, Hájková P, Kintrová K, Kočí M, Kubešová S, Lustyk P, Otýpková Z, Pelánková B, Valachovič M (2010) Habitats of relict terrestrial snails in southern Siberia: lessons for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironments of full glacial Europe. J Biogeogr 37:1450–1462Google Scholar
  13. Hultén E (1950) Atlas of the distribution of vascular plants in NW Europe. Generalstabens Litografiska Anstalts Förlag StockholmGoogle Scholar
  14. Iversen J (1964) Plant indicators of climate, soil and other factors during the Quaternary. Proc INQUA Congr (Moskva 1961) 22:421–428Google Scholar
  15. Jankovská V (1984) Late Glacial Finds of Pinus cembra L. in the Lubovnianská kotlina Basin. Folia Geobot Phytotax 19:323–325Google Scholar
  16. Jankovská V (2008) Slovenské a moravské Karpaty v poslední době ledové—ostrov sibiřské tajgy v Evropě. (Slovak and Moravian Carpathians in the last glacial period—an island of Siberian taiga in Europe). Phytopedon Bratislava 7:122–130Google Scholar
  17. Jankovská V, Pokorný P (2008) Forest vegetation of the last full-glacial period in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia and Czech Republic). Preslia 80:207–324Google Scholar
  18. Jankovská V, Chromý P, Nižnianská M (2002) Šafárka—first palaeobotanical data of the character of last glacial vegetation and landscape in the West Carpathians (Slovakia). Acta Palaeobot 42:39–50Google Scholar
  19. Jüttner K (1955–1960 ?) Diluviale Torfschichten bei Bulhary. Résume für Časopis Moravského Musea BrnoGoogle Scholar
  20. Klika J (1931) Studien über die xerothermeVegetation Mitteleuropas I—Die Pollauer Berge im südlichen Mähren. Beih Bot Cbl 47B:343–398Google Scholar
  21. Klíma B (1958) Příspěvek ke stratigrafii nejmladšího sprašového pokryvu (A contribution to the stratigraphy of the youngest loess cover). Antropozoikum Praha 7:11–143Google Scholar
  22. Klíma B (1983) Dolní Věstonice, tábořiště lovců mamutů (Dolní Věstonice, ein Mammutjägerrastplatz). Academia PrahaGoogle Scholar
  23. Klíma B, Kukla J, Ložek V, de Vries H (1962) Stratigraphie des paläolithischen Rastplatzes in der Ziegelei von Dolní Věstonice. Antropozoikum Praha 11:93–146Google Scholar
  24. Klimaszewski M, Szafer W, Szafran B, Urbanski J (1939) The Dryas flora of Kroscienko on the river Dunajec. Bull Serv Géol Pologne 24:1–86Google Scholar
  25. Kneblová V (1954) Fytopaleontologický rozbor uhlíků z paleolitického sídliště v Dolních Věstonicích (Phytopaleontological analyses of charcoal finds in the Palaeolithic settlement in Dolní Věstonice). Antropozoikum Praha 3:297–299Google Scholar
  26. Kodym O, Fusan O, Matějka A (1967) Geological map of Czechoslovakia 1:500 000. Geological Survey, PrahaGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuneš P, Pelánková B, Chytrý M, Jankovská V, Pokorný P, Petr L (2008) Interpretation of the last-glacial vegetation of eastern-central Europe using modern analogues from southern Siberia. J Biogeogr 35:2223–2236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lais R (1951) Über den jüngeren Löss in Niederösterreich, Mähren und Böhmen. Ber Naturforsch Ges Freiburg 41:119–178Google Scholar
  29. Ložek V (1964) Quartärmollusken der Tschechoslowakei. Rozpravy Ústředního Ústavu Geologického Praha 31:1–374Google Scholar
  30. Ložek V (1973) Příroda ve čtvrtohorách (Nature in the Quaternary). Academia Praha (in Czech)Google Scholar
  31. Ložek V (2009) Vývoj přírody a podnebí (Development of nature and climate). In: Svoboda J et al. (eds) Paleolit Moravy a Slezska (Palaeolithic of Moravia and Silesia), 3rd edn. Archeologický ústav CAS Brno, pp 38–47 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  32. Mackovčín P (ed) (2007) Pálava. Chráněná území ČR (Pálava hills, Protected area) Protected areas of the Czech Republic 9:726–771 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  33. Mamakowa K (1968) Flora z interstadialu Paudorf w Laźku kolo Zaklikówa (Flora from the Paudorf interstadial at Laźek near Zaklików, SE Poland). Acta Palaeobot 9:29–44Google Scholar
  34. Moore PD, Webb JA, Collinson ME (1991) Pollen analysis. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. Munsell Soil Color Charts (1954) Munsell Color Company BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  36. Nečesaný V (1951) Studie o diluviální flóře Dyjsko-svrateckého úvalu (The diluvial flora of the valley of Dyje and Svratka). Acta Academiae Scientiarum Naturae Moravio-Silesiaceae Brno 23(14):291–306 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  37. Opravil E (1961) Dřeviny z moravských archeologických nálezů. (Die Gehölze aus mährischen archäologischen Funden). Sborník Klubu Přírodovědného Brno 33:29–32Google Scholar
  38. Podpěra J (1928) Die Vegetationsverhältnisse der Pollauer Berge. Acta Bot Bohemica 8:77–132Google Scholar
  39. Quitt E (1971) Klimatické oblasti Československa (Climatic regions of Czechoslovakia). Studia Geographica Brno 16:1–84Google Scholar
  40. Rybníček K, Rybníčková E (1994) Vegetation histories of the Pannonian, Hercynic and Carpathian regions of the former Czechoslovakia. Diss Bot 234:473–485Google Scholar
  41. Rybníčková E (1985) Dřeviny a vegetace Československa v nejmladším kvarteru (Trees and vegetation of Czechoslovakia in the uppermost Quaternary. Diss Inst Bot CSAS PrůhoniceGoogle Scholar
  42. Rybníčková E, Rybníček K (1992) The environment of the Pavlovian – palaeoecological results from Bulhary, South Moravia. In: Kovar-Eder J (ed) Palaeovegetational development in Europe and regions relevant to its palaeofloristic evolution. Proc Pan-European Paleobotanical Conference Vienna 1991, pp 73–79Google Scholar
  43. Rybníčková E, Rybníček K (1993) Late Quaternary forest line oscillations in the West Carpathians. Paläoklimaforschung 9:187–194Google Scholar
  44. Sarkony A (1957) Histoire de la végetation de l′Aurignatien de la caverne des Istálloskö (Hongrie, Montagne Bükk). INQUA Congress Madrid, Barcelona. Abstracts, pp 167–168Google Scholar
  45. Slavíková-Veselá J (1950) Reconstruction of the succession of forest trees in Czechoslovakia on the basis of an analysis of charcoals from prehistoric settlements. Stud Bot Čechoslovaka 11:198–225Google Scholar
  46. Šmarda J (1971) Pavlovské kopce (Die Pollauer Berge). Krajské Středisko Státní Památkové Péče a Ochrana Přírody Brno, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  47. Środoń A (1968) O rośliności interstadialu Paudorf w Karpatach zachodnich (On the vegetation of the Paudorf interstadial in the Western Carpathians). Acta Palaeobot 9:3–27Google Scholar
  48. Środoń A (1987) Flora peryglacjalna z Sowlin kolo Limanowej, Vistulian, Karpaty zachodnie. (Periglacial flora of the Vistulian age from Sowliny near Limanowa, W. Carpathians.). Acta Palaeobot 27:53–69Google Scholar
  49. Stejskal J (1931) Svážná území na Pavlovských vrších (Landslides in the Pavlovské vrchy hills). Věst Čes Akad Zeměděl Praha 6:55–94 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  50. Stejskal J (1934) Geologická stavba Pavlovských vrchů na jižní Moravě (Geology of the Pavlovské vrchy hills in the south Moravia). Věstník Státního Geologického Ústavu Praha 10:199–209Google Scholar
  51. Sümegi P, Hertelendi E, Magyari E, Molnár M (1998) Evolution of the environment in the Carpathian Basin during the last 30000 B.P. years and its affects on the ancient habitats of the different cultures. In: Bartosiewicz L, Költö L (eds) Archaeometrical Research in Hungary, Budapest, pp 183–193Google Scholar
  52. Svoboda J, Havlíček P, Ložek V, Macoun J, Musil R, Přichystal A, Svobodová H, Vlček E (2009) Paleolit Moravy a Slezska (Paleolithic of Moravia and Silesia), 3rd edn. Archeologický ústav CAC Brno, Dolnověstonické studie 16:1–303Google Scholar
  53. Thiel Ch, Buylaert JP, Murray AS, Terhorst B, Tsukamoto S, Frechen M, Spravke T (2011) Investigating the chronostratigraphy of prominent palaeosols in Lower Austria using post IR IRSL dating. Eiszeitalter Gegenwart 60:137–152Google Scholar
  54. Troels-Smith J (1955) Characterization of unconsolidated sediments. Danm Geol Undersögelse 4 R 3/10:1–73Google Scholar
  55. Tutin TG et al (eds) (1964–1980) Flora Europaea 1–5. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  56. Valoch K (1993) Mladý paleolit a jeho zakončení (The upper Palaeolithic and its termination). Vlastivěda moravská, nová řada Brno 3:27–70Google Scholar
  57. Van Geel B (1978) A palaeoecological study of Holocene peat bog sections in Germany and the Netherlands. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 25:1–120Google Scholar
  58. Van Geel, Bohncke SJP, Dee H (1981) A palaeoecological study of an upper late Glacial and Holocene sequence from “de Borchert”, the Netherlands. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 31:367–448Google Scholar
  59. Van Geel B, Coope GR, Van der Hammen T (1989) Palaeoecology and stratigraphy of the Lateglacial type section at Usselo (the Netherlands). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 60:25–129Google Scholar
  60. Vesecký A (ed) (1958) Atlas podnebí Československé republiky (Climatic atlas of the Czechoslovak Republic). Hydrometeorologický ústav Praha, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  61. Willis KJ, Van Andel TH (2004) Trees or not trees? The environments of central and eastern Europe during the last glaciation. Quat Sci Rev 23:2,369–2,387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Willis KJ, Rudner E, Sümegi P (2000) The full Glacial forests of Central and Southeastern Europe. Quat Res 53:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Vegetation Ecology, Institute of BotanyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations