Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 229–248 | Cite as

Late glacial and Holocene environmental changes inferred from sediments in Lake Myklevatnet, Nordfjord, western Norway

  • Atle NesjeEmail author
  • Jostein Bakke
  • Stephen J. Brooks
  • Darrell S. Kaufman
  • Emma Kihlberg
  • Mathias Trachsel
  • William J. D’Andrea
  • John A. Matthews
Original Article


Late Glacial and Holocene environmental changes were reconstructed using physical, chemical and biological proxies in Lake Myklevatnet, Allmenningen, (5º13′17″E, 61º55′13″N) located at the northern side of Nordfjorden at the coast of western Norway. Myklevatnet (123 m a.s.l.) lies above the Late Glacial marine limit and contains sediments back to approximately 14,300 years before a.d. 2000 (b2k). Because the lake is located ~48 km beyond the margin of the Younger Dryas (YD) fjord and valley glaciers further inland, and did not receive glacier meltwater from local glaciers during the YD, the lake record provides supplementary information to Lake Kråkenes that received glacial meltwater from a local YD glacier. Lake Myklevatnet has a small catchment and is sensitive to Late Glacial and Holocene climate and environmental changes in the coastal region of western Norway. The age-depth relationship was inferred from a radiocarbon- and tephra-based smoothing-spline model with correlated ages from oxygen isotope maxima and minima in the Late Glacial sequence of the NGRIP ice core (in years b2k) to refine the basal chronology in the Myklevatnet record. The results indicate a two-step YD warming, colder early YD temperatures than in the later part of the YD, and considerably more climate and environmental variability during the late Holocene in western Norway than recorded previously in the oxygen isotopes from Greenland ice cores. The Myklevatnet record is also compared with other Late Glacial and Holocene terrestrial and marine proxy reconstructions in the North Atlantic realm.


Lake sediments Late glacial Holocene Multi-proxy reconstruction Environmental change 



Åsmund Bakke, Herbjørn Heggen and Joachim Riis Simonsen participated in the lake coring and Bjørn Kvisvik and Jørund Strømsøe carried out some of the laboratory analyses. The radiocarbon dating was carried out at the Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory under the leadership of Tomasz Goslar. Financial support was received from the Norwegian Research Council to the NORPAST-II, SEDITRANS and ARCTREC projects. Mathias Trachsel acknowledges financial support from the Swiss Science Foundation. Eva Bjørseth and Jane Ellingsen prepared some of the figures. To all these persons and institutions we offer our sincere thanks. We also thank two anonymous reviewers, whose comments and suggestions improved the paper. This is publication no. A437 from the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research. The pioneering work of Hilary Birks and her collaborators at the Kråkenes site helped to shape the research presented in this paper.


  1. Alley RB, Ágústsdóttir AM (2005) The 8k event: cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change. Quat Sci Rev 24:1,123–1,149Google Scholar
  2. Alley RB, Mayewski PA, Sowers T, Stuiver M, Taylor KC, Clark PU (1997) Holocene climatic instability: a prominent, widespread event 8,200 year ago. Geology 6:483–486Google Scholar
  3. Andersen BG, Mangerud J, Sørensen R, Reite A, Sveian H, Thoresen M, Bergstrøm B (1995) Younger Dryas ice marginal deposits in Norway. Quat Int 28:147–169Google Scholar
  4. Andersen C, Koç N, Jennings A, Andrews T (2004) Nonuniform response of the major surface currents of the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing: implications for the Holocene climate variability. Paleoceanography 19: PA2003, doi:  10.1029/2002PA000873
  5. Andersson C, Pausata FSR, Jansen E, Risebrobakken B, Telford R (2010) Holocene trends in the foraminiferal record from the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic. Clim Past 6:179–193Google Scholar
  6. Andrews JT, Giraudeau J (2003) Multi-proxy records showing significant Holocene environmental variability: the inner N. Iceland shelf (Hunafloi). Quat Sci Rev 22:175–193Google Scholar
  7. Andrews JT, Darby D, Eberle D, Jennings AE, Moros M, Ogilvie A (2009) A robust, multisite Holocene history of drift ice off northern Iceland: implications for North Atlantic climate. Holocene 19:71–77Google Scholar
  8. Bakke J, Lie Ø, Heegaard E, Dokken T, Haug G, Birks HH, Dulski P, Nilsen T (2009) Rapid oceanic and atmospheric changes during the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geosci 2:202–205Google Scholar
  9. Bakke J, Dahl SO, Paasche Ø, Riis Simonsen J, Kvisvik B, Bakke K, Nesje A (2010) A complete record of Holocene glacier variability at Austre Okstindbreen, northern Norway: an integrated approach. Quat Sci Rev 29:1,246–1,262Google Scholar
  10. Barnekow L, Sandgren P (2001) Palaeoclimate and tree-line changes during the Holocene based on pollen and plant macrofossil records from six lakes at different altitudes in northern Sweden. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 117:109–118Google Scholar
  11. Barnett C, Dumayne-Peaty L, Matthews JA (2001) Holocene climatic change and tree-line response in Leirdalen, central Jotunheimen, south central Norway. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 117:119–137Google Scholar
  12. Bennett KD (1996) Determination of the number of zones in a biostratigraphical sequence. New Phytol 132:155–170Google Scholar
  13. Berger WH, Labeyrie LD (1987) Abrupt climatic change, evidence and implications. NATO ASI Series C, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 216. Reidel, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  14. Berner KS, Koc N, Godtliebsen F (2010) High frequency climate variability of the Norwegian Atlantic current during the early Holocene period and a possible connection to the Gleissberg cycle. Holocene 20:245–255Google Scholar
  15. Birks HJB (1995) Quantitative palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. In: Maddy D, Brew JS (eds) Statistical modelling of Quaternary science data. Technical guide 5. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, pp 161–254Google Scholar
  16. Birks HJB (1998) Numerical tools in palaeolimnology- progress, potentialities, and problems. J Paleolimnol 20:307–332Google Scholar
  17. Birks HJB, Birks HH (2008) Biological responses to rapid climate change at the Younger Dryas–Holocene transition at Kråkenes, western Norway. Holocene 18:19–30Google Scholar
  18. Birks CJA, Koc N (2002) A high-resolution diatom record of Late-Quaternary sea-surface temperatures and oceanographic conditions from the eastern Norwegian Sea. Boreas 31:323–344Google Scholar
  19. Birks HJB, Juggins S, Line JM (1990) Lake Water Chemistry Reconstruction. In: Mason BJ (ed) The surface waters acidification programme. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 301–313Google Scholar
  20. Birks HH, Paus A, Svendsen J-I, Alm T, Mangerud J, Landvik JY (1994) Late Weichselian environmental changes in Norway, including Svalbard. J Quat Sci 9:133–145Google Scholar
  21. Birks HH, Battarbee RW, Birks HJB (2000) The development of the aquatic ecosystem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late-glacial and early-Holocene—a synthesis. J Paleolimnol 23:91–114Google Scholar
  22. Birks HJB, Heiri O, Seppä H, Bjune AE (2010) Strengths and weaknesses of quantitative climate reconstructions based on late-Quaternary biological proxies. Open Ecol J 3:68–110Google Scholar
  23. Björck S, Rundgren M, Ingólfsson Ó, Funder S (1997) The Preboreal oscillation around the Nordic Seas: terrestrial and lacustrine responses. J Quat Sci 12:455–465Google Scholar
  24. Blaauw M (2010) Methods and code for ‘classical’ age-modelling of radiocarbon sequences. Quat Geochron 5:512–518Google Scholar
  25. Blaauw M (2012) Out of tune: the dangers of aligning proxy archives. Quat Sci Rev 36:38–49Google Scholar
  26. Bond G, Broecker W, Johnsen S, McManus J, Labeyrie L, Jouzel J, Bonani G (1993) Correlations between climatic records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature 365:143–147Google Scholar
  27. Boyle EA, Keigwin LD (1987) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature. Nature 330:35–40Google Scholar
  28. Brauer A, Haug GH, Dulski P, Sigman DM, Negendank JFW (2008) An abrupt wind shift in western Europe at the onset of the Younger Dryas cold period. Nat Geosci 1:520–523Google Scholar
  29. Brooks SJ (2006) Fossil midges as palaeoclimatic indicators of the Eurasian region. Quat Sci Rev 25:1,894–1,910Google Scholar
  30. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2000) Chironomid-inferred Late-glacial air temperatures at Whitrig Bog, southeast Scotland. J Quat Sci 15:759–764Google Scholar
  31. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2001) Chironomid-inferred air temperatures from Late Glacial and Holocene sites in north-west Europe: progress and problems. Quat Sci Rev 20:1,723–1,741Google Scholar
  32. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2004) The dynamics of Chironomidae assemblages in response to environmental change during the past 300 years in Spitsbergen. J Paleolimnol 31:483–498Google Scholar
  33. Brooks SJ, Langdon PG, Heiri O (2007) The identification and use of Palaearctic Chironomidae larvae in palaeoecology. QRA Tech Guide 10. Quaternary Research Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Dahl SO, Nesje A (1996) A new approach to calculating Holocene winter precipitation by combining glacier equilibrium-line altitudes and pine-tree limits: a case study from Hardangerjøkulen, central southern Norway. Holocene 6:381–398Google Scholar
  35. Dahl SO, Nesje A, Lie Ø, Fjordheim K, Matthews JA (2002) Timing, equilibrium-line altitudes and climatic implications of two early Holocene glacier during the Erdalen Event at Jostedalsbreen, western Norway. Holocene 12:17–25Google Scholar
  36. Dansgaard W (1964) Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16:436–468Google Scholar
  37. Dansgaard W, Johnsen SJ, Clausen HB, Dahl-Jensen D, Gundestrup NS, Hammer CU, Hvidberg CS, Steffensen JP, Sveinbjørnsdottir AE, Bond G (1993) Evidence for a general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature 364:218–220Google Scholar
  38. Davis BAS, Brewer S, Stevenson AC, Guiot J, Contributors (2003) The temperature of Europe during the Holocene reconstructed from pollen data. Quat Sci Rev 22:1,701–1,716Google Scholar
  39. Fareth OW (1987) Glacial geology of Middle and Inner Nordfjord, western Norway. Norges Geol Unders Bull 408:1–55Google Scholar
  40. Grimm EC (2004) Tilia and Tilia*Graph software. Illinois State Museum, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  41. Gulliksen S, Birks HH, Possnert G, Mangerud J (1998) A calendar age estimate of the Younger Dryas – Holocene boundary at Kråkenes, western Norway. Holocene 8:249–259Google Scholar
  42. Heiri O, Lotter AF (2001) Effects of low count sums on quantitative environmental reconstructions: an example using subfossil chironomids. J Paleolimnol 26:343–350Google Scholar
  43. Hjort C, Mangerud J, Adrielsson L, Bondevik S, Landvik JY, Salvigsen O (1995) Radiocarbon dated common mussels Mytilus edulis from eastern Svalbard and the Holocene marine climatic optimum. Polar Res 14:239–243Google Scholar
  44. Hosking JRM (1990) Analysis and Estimation of Distributions Using Linear Combinations of Order Statistics. J R Stat Soc 52:105–124Google Scholar
  45. Iversen J (1954) The late interglacial flora of Denmark and its relation to climate and soil. Danm Geol Unders II 80:87–119Google Scholar
  46. Jansen E, Andersson C, Moros M, Nisancioglu KH, Nyland B, Telford RJ (2008) The early to mid-Holocene thermal optimum in the North Atlantic. In: Battarbee RW, Binney HA (eds) Natural climate variability and global warming: a Holocene perspective. Blackwell, Wiley, pp 123–137Google Scholar
  47. Johnsen SJ, Clausen HB, Dansgaard W, Fuhrer K, Gundestrup N, Hammer CU, Iversen P, Jouzel J, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP (1992) Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core. Nature 359:311–313Google Scholar
  48. Johnsen SJ, Dahl-Jensen D, Dansgaard W, Gundestrup N (1995) Greenland paleotemperatures derived from GRIP core hole temperature and ice isotope profiles. Tellus Ser B 47:624–629Google Scholar
  49. Jones RT, Marshall JD, Crowley SF, Bedford A, Richardson N, Bloemendal J, Oldfield F (2002) A high resolution, multiproxy Late-glacial record of climate change and intrasystem responses in northwest England. J Quat Sci 17:329–340Google Scholar
  50. Juggins S (1991) ZONE software. University of Newcastle upon TyneGoogle Scholar
  51. Karlén W, Matthews JA (1992) Reconstructing Holocene glacier variations from glacial lake sediments: studies from Nordvestlandet and Jostedalsbreen-Jotunheimen, southern Norway. Geogr Ann 74A:327–348Google Scholar
  52. Kaufman DS, Ager TA, Anderson PM, Andrews JT, Bartlein PJ, Brubaker LB, Coats LL, Cwynar LC, Duvall ML, Dyke AS, Edwards ME, Eisner WR, Gajewski K, Geirsdóttir A, Hu FS, Jennings AE, Kaplan MR, Kerwin MW, Lozhkin AV, MacDonald GM, Miller GH, Mock CJ, Oswald WW, Otto-Bliesner BL, Porinchu DF, Rühland K, Smol JP, Steig EJ, Wolfe BB (2004) Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0–180°W). Quat Sci Rev 23:529–560Google Scholar
  53. Kihlberg E (2008) Tephra stratigraphy and tephra analysis of a Late Quaternary lake sediment core from western Norway. Stockholms Universitet, Examensarbete i kvartärgeologiGoogle Scholar
  54. Kleiven HF, Kissell C, Laj C, Ninnemann US, Richter TO, Cortijo E (2008) Reduced North Atlantic deep water coeval with the glacial lake Agassiz freshwater outburst. Science 319:60–64Google Scholar
  55. Klitgaard-Kristensen D, Sejrup H-P, Haflidason H, Johnsen S, Spurk M (1998) A regional 8200 cal. yr BP cooling event in northwestern Europe, induced by final stages of the Laurentide ice-sheet deglaciation? J Quat Sci 13:165–169Google Scholar
  56. Klitgaard-Kristensen D, Sejrup H-P, Haflidason H (2001) The last 18 kyr fluctuations in Norwegian Sea surface conditions and implications for the magnitude of climatic change: evidence from the North Sea. Paleoceanography 16:455–467Google Scholar
  57. Koc Karpuz N, Jansen E (1992) A high-resolution diatom record of the last deglaciation from the SE Norwegian Sea: documentation of rapid climatic changes. Paleoceanography 7:499–520Google Scholar
  58. Kullman L (1995) Holocene tree-limit and climate history from the Scandes Mountains, Sweden. Ecology 768:2,490–2,502Google Scholar
  59. Lang B, Brooks SJ, Bedford A, Jones RT, Birks HJB, Marshall J (2010) Regional consistency in Lateglacial chironomid-inferred temperatures from five sites in north-west England. Quat Sci Rev 29:1,528–1,538Google Scholar
  60. Larocque I (2001) How many chironomid head capsules are enough? A statistical approach to determine sample size for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 172:133–142Google Scholar
  61. Larsen E, Stalsberg MK (2004) Younger Dryas glaciolacustrine rhytmites and cirque glacier variations at Kråkenes, western Norway: depositional processes and climate. J Paleolimnol 31:49–61Google Scholar
  62. Larsen E, Eide F, Longva O, Mangerud J (1984) Allerød–Younger Dryas climate inferences from cirque glaciers and vegetational development in the Nordfjord area, western Norway. Arctic Alpine Res 16:16–137Google Scholar
  63. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical Ecology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  64. Lehman SJ, Keigwin LD (1992) Sudden changes in North Atlantic circulation during the last deglaciation. Nature 356:757–762Google Scholar
  65. Lockwood JG (2001) Abrupt and sudden climatic transitions and fluctuations: a review. Int J Climatol 21:1,153–1,179Google Scholar
  66. Lohne ØS, Mangerud J, Birks H (2013) Precise 14C ages of the Vedde and Saksunarvatn ashes and the Younger Dryas boundaries from western Norway and their comparison with the Greenland Ice Core (GICC05) chronology. J Quat Sci 28:490–500Google Scholar
  67. Mangerud J, Andersen ST, Berglund BE, Donner JJ (1974) Quaternary stratigraphy of Norden: a proposal for terminology and classification. Boreas 3:109–127Google Scholar
  68. Mangerud J, Larsen E, Longva O, Sønstegaard E (1979) Glacial history of western Norway 15,000–10,000 bp. Boreas 8:179–187Google Scholar
  69. Mangerud J, Lie SE, Furnes H, Kristiansen IL, Lømo L (1984) A Younger Dryas ash bed in Western Norway, and its possible correlations with tephra in cores from the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic. Quat Res 21:85–104Google Scholar
  70. Matthews JA, Karlén W (1992) Asynchronous neoglaciation and Holocene climatic change reconstructed from Norwegian glacio-lacustrine sedimentary sequences. Geology 20:991–994Google Scholar
  71. Mayewski PA, Rohling EE, Stager JC, Karlén W, Maasch KA, Meeker LD, Meyerson EA, Gasse F, Van Kreveld S, Holmgren K, Lee-Thorp J, Rosqvist G, Rack F, Staubwasser M, Schneider RR, Steig EJ (2004) Holocene climate variability. Quat Res 62:243–255Google Scholar
  72. Mortlock RA, Froelich PN (1989) A simple method for the rapid determination of biogenic opal in pelagic marine sediments. Deep-Sea Res 36:1,415–1,426Google Scholar
  73. Nesje A (1992) A piston corer for lacustrine and marine sediments. Arctic Alpine Res 24:257–259Google Scholar
  74. Nesje A (2009) Latest Pleistocene and Holocene alpine glacier fluctuations in Scandinavia. Quat Sci Rev 28:2,119–2,136Google Scholar
  75. Nesje A, Dahl SO (1991) Holocene glacier variations of Blåisen, Hardangerjøkulen, central southern Norway. Quat Res 54:25–40Google Scholar
  76. Nesje A, Dahl SO (2001) The Greenland 8200 cal. year BP event detected in loss-on-ignition profiles in Norwegian lacustrine sediment sequences. J Quat Sci 16:155–166Google Scholar
  77. Nesje A, Matthews JA, Dahl SO, Berrisford MS, Andersson C (2001) Holocene glacier fluctuations of Flatebreen and winter precipitation changes in the Jostedalsbreen region, western Norway, based on glaciolacustrine records. Holocene 11:267–280Google Scholar
  78. Nesje A, Dahl SO, Bakke J (2004a) Were abrupt Late Glacial and early-Holocene climatic changes in northwest Europe linked to freshwater outbursts to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans? Holocene 14:299–310Google Scholar
  79. Nesje A, Dahl SO, Lie Ø (2004b) Holocene millennial-scale summer temperature variability inferred from sediment parameters in a non-glacial mountain lake: Danntjørn, Jotunheimen, central southern Norway. Quat Sci Rev 23:2,183–2,205Google Scholar
  80. Newton A, McColloch B, Dugmore A (2005) Acid digestion of organic samples for the extraction of tephra. TephrabaseGoogle Scholar
  81. Nussbaumer SU, Nesje A, Zumbühl HJ (2011) Historical glacier fluctuations of Jostedalsbreen and Folgefonna (southern Norway) reassessed by new pictorial and written evidence. Holocene 21:455–471Google Scholar
  82. Nygård A, Sejrup HP, Haflidason H, Cecchi M, Ottesen D (2008) Deglaciation history of the southwestern Fennoscandian Ice Sheet between 15 and 13 14C ka BP. Boreas 33:1–17Google Scholar
  83. Paus A (2013) Human impact, soil erosion, and vegetation response lags to climate change: challenges for the mid-Scandinavian pollen-based transfer-function temperature reconstructions. Veget Hist Archaeobot 22:269–284Google Scholar
  84. Persson C (1966) Försök til tefrokronologisk datering it re norska myrar. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholms Förhandlingar 89:181–197Google Scholar
  85. Quinlan R, Smol JP (2001) Setting minimum head capsule abundance and taxa deletion criteria in chironomid-based inference models. J Paleolimnol 26:327–342Google Scholar
  86. Rahmstorf S (2002) Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years. Nature 419:207–214Google Scholar
  87. Rasmussen TL, Thomsen E (2010) Holocene temperature and salinity variability of the Atlantic water inflow to the Nordic seas. Holocene 20:1,223–1,234Google Scholar
  88. Rasmussen SO et al (2006) A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination. J Geophys Res 111:D06102. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006079 Google Scholar
  89. Rein B, Sirocko F (2002) In-situ reflectance spectroscopy-analysing techniques for high-resolution pigment logging in sediment cores. Int J Earth Sci 91:950–954Google Scholar
  90. Renssen H, Seppä H, Heiri O, Roche DM, Goosse H, Fichefet T (2009) The spatial and temporal complexity of the Holocene thermal maximum. Nat Geosci 2:411–414Google Scholar
  91. Richter TO, van der Gaast S, Koster B, Vaars A, Gieles R, De Stigter HC, De Haas H, van Weering TCE (2006) The AVATECH XRF core scanner: technical description and applications to NE Atlantic sediments. In: Rothwell RG (ed) New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis. Geological Society, London, pp 39–50Google Scholar
  92. Risebrobakken B, Jansen E, Andersson C, Mjelde E, Hevrøy K (2003) A high-resolution study of Holocene paleoclimatic and paleocenographic changes in the Nordic Seas. Paleoceanography 18(1):017. doi: 10.1029/2002PA000764 Google Scholar
  93. Risebrobakken B, Moros M, Ivanova EV, Chistyakova N, Rosenberg R (2010) Climate and oceanographic variability in the SW Barents Sea during the Holocene. Holocene 20:609–621Google Scholar
  94. Rohling EJ, Pälike H (2005) Centennial-scale climate cooling with a sudden cold event around 8,200 years ago. Nature 434:975–979Google Scholar
  95. Rye N, Nesje A, Lien R, Anda E (1987) The Late Weichselian ice sheet in the Nordfjord-Sunnmøre area and deglaciation chronology for Nordfjord, western Norway. Nor Geogr Tidsskr 41:23–43Google Scholar
  96. Rye N, Nesje A, Lien R, Blikra LH, Eikenæs O, Hole PA, Torsnes I (1997) Glacial geology and deglaciation chronology of the area between inner Nordfjord and Jostedalsbreen–Strynefjellet, western Norway. Norsk Geol Tidsskr 77:51–63Google Scholar
  97. R Development core team (2011) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria.
  98. Salvigsen O (2002) Radiocarbon-dated Mytilus edulis and Modiolus modiolus from northern Svalbard: climatic implications. Norsk Geogr Tidsskr 56:56–61Google Scholar
  99. Salvigsen O, Forman SL, Miller GH (1992) Thermophilous molluscs on Svalbard during the Holocene and their paleoclimatic implications. Polar Res 11:1–10Google Scholar
  100. Sejrup HP, Haflidason H, Andrews JT (2011) A Holocene North Atlantic SST record and regional climate variability. Quat Sci Rev 30:3,181–3,195Google Scholar
  101. Self AE, Brooks SJ, Birks HJB, Nazarova LB, Porinchu D, Odland A, Yang H, Jones VJ (2011) The influence of temperature and continentality on modern chironomid assemblages in high-latitude Eurasian lakes: development and application of new chironomid-based climate-inference models in northern Russia. Quat Sci Rev 30:1,122–1,141Google Scholar
  102. Seppä H, Bjune AE, Telford RJ, Birks HJB, Veski S (2009) Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in northern Europe. Clim of the Past 5:523–535Google Scholar
  103. Seppä H, Birks HJB, Bjune AE, Nesje A (2010) Centenary of modern palaeoclimate research in the Nordic region (100 years since Gunnar Andersson 1909) – Introduction. Boreas 39:649–654Google Scholar
  104. Sigmond EMO, Gustavson M, Roberts D (1984) Berggrunnskart over Norge. M 1:1 million. Norges Geol UndersGoogle Scholar
  105. Sønstegaard E, Aa AR, Klakegg O (1999) Younger Dryas glaciation in the Ålfoten area, western Norway; evidence from lake sediments and marginal moraines. Norsk Geol Tidsskr 79:33–45Google Scholar
  106. Steiner D, Pauling A, Nussbaumer SU, Nesje A, Luterbacher J, Wanner H, Zumbühl HJ (2008) Sensitivity of European glaciers to precipitation and temperature – two case studies. Clim Chang 90:413–441Google Scholar
  107. Stuiver M, Grootes PM, Braziunas TF (1995) The GISP2 ∂18O climate record of the past 16,500 years and the role of sun, ocean, and volcanoes. Quat Res 44:341–354Google Scholar
  108. Turney CSM (1998) Extraction of rhyoloitic component of Vedde microtephra from minerogenic lake sediments. J Paleolimnol 19:199–206Google Scholar
  109. Vasskog K, Paasche Ø, Nesje A, Boyle JF, Birks HJB (2012) A new approach for reconstructing glacier variability based on lake sediments recording input from more than one glacier. Quat Res 77:192–204Google Scholar
  110. Velle G, Brooks SJ, Birks HJB, Willassen E (2005) Chironomids as a tool for inferring Holocene climate: an assessment based on six sites in southern Scandinavia. Quat Sci Rev 24:1,429–1,462Google Scholar
  111. Vinther BM, Clausen HB, Fisher DA, Koerner RM, Johnsen SJ, Andersen KK, Dahl-Jensen D, Rasmussen SO, Steffensen JP, Svensson AM (2008) Synchronizing ice cores from the Renland and Agassiz ice caps to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology. J Geophys Res 113:D08115. doi: 10.1029/2007JD009143 Google Scholar
  112. Von Grafenstein U, Erlenkeuser H, Müller J, Jouzel J, Johnsen S (1998) The cold event 8200 years ago documented in oxygen isotope records of precipitation in Europe and Greenland. Clim Dyn 14:73–81Google Scholar
  113. Wanner H, Beer J, Bütikofer J, Crowley TJ, Cubasch U, Flückiger J, Goosse H, Grosjean M, Joos F, Kaplan JO, Küttel M, Müller SA, Prentice IC, Solomina O, Stocker TF, Tarasov P, Wagner M, Widmann M (2008) Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quat Sci Rev 27:1,791–1,828Google Scholar
  114. Webb PW, Orr C (1997) Analytical Methods in Fine Particle Technology. Micromeretics Instrument Corporation, NorcrossGoogle Scholar
  115. Widmann M (2008) Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quat Sci Rev 27:1,791–1,828Google Scholar
  116. Wiederholm T (ed) (1983) Chironomidae of the Holarctic region, Keys and diagnoses, Part 1, Larvae. Entomologica Scandinavica Suppl 19:1–457Google Scholar
  117. Wolfe AP, Vinebrooke R, Michelutti N, Rivard B, Das B (2006) Experimental calibration of lake-sediment spectral reflectance to chlorophyll a concentrations: methodology and paleolimnological validation. J Paleolimnol 36:91–100Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atle Nesje
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jostein Bakke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephen J. Brooks
    • 3
  • Darrell S. Kaufman
    • 4
  • Emma Kihlberg
    • 5
  • Mathias Trachsel
    • 6
  • William J. D’Andrea
    • 7
  • John A. Matthews
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Earth ScienceUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Uni Research and Bjerknes Centre for Climate ResearchBergenNorway
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK
  4. 4.School of Earth Sciences and Environmental SustainabilityNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA
  5. 5.EnskedeSweden
  6. 6.Department of BiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  7. 7.Climate System Research Center, Department of GeosciencesUniversity of Massachusetts AmherstAmherstUSA
  8. 8.Department of GeographySwansea UniversitySwanseaUK

Personalised recommendations