The climate of the Younger Dryas as a boundary for Einkorn domestication

  • Sylvi Haldorsen
  • Hasan Akan
  • Bahattin Çelik
  • Manfred HeunEmail author


The domestication of the Neolithic founder crops of the Near East has recently been a topic of debate particularly with respect to how rapidly the domestication of these crops occurred. One school of thought maintains that these processes lasted several thousand years (‘protracted model’ with ‘gathering’, ‘cultivation’ and ‘domestication’ as three stages of a continuum, each taking up to several thousand years), while another favors the view that domestication occurred much more quickly, over several hundred years at most (‘rapid transition’). Our study focuses on one of these crops, 1-grained domesticated Einkorn wheat, incorporating data from geology, vegetation history, and climate. In the Karacadağ region of southeastern Turkey, where 1-grained Einkorn wheat was domesticated, the climate was severe (i.e. cold and dry) during the Younger Dryas. The climate of the Younger Dryas acted as boundary during which a) conditions were not suitable for ‘cultivation’, and b) Einkorn would have retreated to refugia exhibiting more suitable moisture-bearing soils that would have made ‘gathering’ difficult. Around 11600 cal. b.p., the Younger Dryas ended and a very rapid climatic amelioration commenced at the beginning of the Early Holocene, enabling grasses to spread throughout the region. A ritual PPNA/PPNB site (Göbekli Tepe) and associated PPNB settlements such as Nevali Çori and Çayönü were established at this time. In the settlements of Nevali Çori and Cafer Höyük, the oldest domesticated Einkorn was found in the earliest archaeological layers. This confirms that the inhabitants made use of domesticated 1-grained Einkorn from the very beginning of settlement activity, although they continued to practice a mixed lifestyle as hunter-gatherers and farmers. For Çayönü the issue is more complex, but here domesticated Einkorn also appears around the same time. In summary, by 10400 cal. b.p. domesticated 1-grained Einkorn was present in large quantities at a variety of sites. This would give a maximum window of time lasting approximately 1,200 years and is therefore not in agreement with the ‘protracted’ model but would be consistent with a ‘rapid transition’. It is improbable that the ‘cultivation’ of wild Einkorn was practiced in the Karacadağ region, since wild Einkorn was plentiful during the favorable growing conditions following the Younger Dryas, making it more likely that ‘gathering’ would have been practiced. Because Einkorn has not been found in early settlements in the southern Levant, this crop cannot have been ‘gathered’ and ‘cultivated’ there but instead was ‘domesticated’ independently and solely in southeastern Turkey. Therefore, the YD acts as a boundary, providing a maximum time frame for 1-grained Einkorn domestication.


Einkorn Domestication Younger Dryas Holocene Neolithic Southeastern Turkey 



Thanks are due to K. Schmidt, DAI, Berlin, Germany, for allowing M. Heun to visit Göbekli Tepe in 2008 and for patiently explaining the archaeology of the site in detail. Conversations with J. Peters, LMU, Munich, Germany and N. Pöllath, LMU, Munich, Germany, held in a taxi on the way to the Karacadağ region (2008) were very helpful as well. Thanks go also to A. Coşkun who explained Körtik Tepe to M. Heun during a trip in 2010 and to V. Özkaya for arranging this trip. M. Simsek accompanied M. Heun during a second trip into the Karacadağ and to Çayönü in 2010. Two phone conversations with R. Pasternak, Kiel, Germany provided support for the domestication status of the Einkorn samples from Nevali Çori. Å. Borgan and B. Hopland, both at UMB, kindly drafted the final versions of most figures. H. Woldring kindly shared his knowledge about the grassland expansion in the Early Holocene with us. N. Roberts read the manuscript and suggested a number of useful changes. The English was improved by C. McGregor and his wife. Sincere thanks to all who aided us in this work; however, we take responsibility for any errors which may occur in this publication.


  1. Abbo S, Lev-Yadun S, Gopher A (2010a) Yield stability: and agronomic perspective on the origin of Near Eastern agriculture. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbo S, Lev-Yadun S, Gopher A (2010b) Agricultural origins: centers and noncenters. Near eastern reappraisal. Critical Rev Plant Sci 20:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allaby RG, Fuller DQ, Brown TA (2008) The genetic expectations of a protracted model for the origins of domesticated crops. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:13,982–13,986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alley RB (2000) The younger Dryas cold interval as viewed from central Greenland. Quat Sci Rev 19:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aurenche O (2007) Cafer Höyük. In: Lichter C (ed) Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Theiss, Stuttgart, p 57Google Scholar
  6. Balter M (2010) The tangled roots of agriculture. Science 327:404–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bar-Matthews M, Ayalon A, Gilmour M, Matthews A, Hawkesworth CJ (2003) Sea-land oxygen isotopic relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the Eastern Mediterranean region and their implication for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:181–183, 199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berger J-F, Guilaine J (2009) The 8200 cal BP environmental change and the Neolithic transition: a Mediterranean perspective. Quat Int 200:31–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bottema S (1995) The younger Dryas in the eastern mediterranean. Quat Sci Rev 14:883–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bridgeland DR, Demir T, Seyrek A, Pringle M, Westaway R, Beck AR, Rowbotham G, Yurtmen S (2007) Dating quaternary volcanism and incision by the River Tigris at Diyabakır, southeast Turkey. J Quat Sci 22:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CalPal-Online (2010). Accessed 3 Feb 2010
  12. CANeW (2009) The project CANeW. Radiocarbon tables. Accessed 2 Nov 2009
  13. Çelik B (2000) A new early-neolithic settlement: Karahan Tepe. Neo-Lithics 2–3/00:6–8Google Scholar
  14. Çelik B (2004) A new early neolithic settlement in southeast Turkey: Hamzan Tepe. Neo-Lithics 2/04:3–5Google Scholar
  15. Çelik B (2006a) A new pre-pottery early neolithic site in southeastern Turkey: Sefer Tepe. Neo-Lithics 1/06:23–25Google Scholar
  16. Çelik B (2006b) A new lower Palaeolithic open air station and Early Neolithic Settlement: Hamzan Tepe. In: Studies in Honor of Hayat Erkanal. Baskı ve Cilt, pp 222–224Google Scholar
  17. Curry A (2008) Seeking the roots of ritual. Science 319:278–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis PH (ed) (1965–1985) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, vol 1–9. University Press, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  19. De Lange GJ, van Santvoort PMJ, Langereis C, Thomson J, Corselli C, Michard A, Rossignol-Strick M, Paterne M, Anastasakis G (1999) Palaeo-environmental variations in eastern Mediterranean sediments: a multidisciplinary approach in a prehistoric setting. Progr Oceanogr 44:369–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Decker K, Riehl S, Jenkins E, Rosen A, Dodonov A, Simakova AN, Conard NJ (2009) Vegetation development and human occupation in the Damascus region of southwestern Syria from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. Veget Hist Archaeobot 18:329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Demir T, Westaway R, Bridgland DR, Seyrek A (2007) Terrace staircases of the River Euphrates in southeast Turkey, northern Syria and western Iraq: evidence for regional surface uplift. Quat Sci Rev 26:2,844–2,863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Djamali M, Akhani H, Andrieu-Ponel V, Braconnot P, Brewer S, de Beaulieu J-L, Fleitmann D, Fleury J, Gasse F, Guibal F, Jackson ST, Lézine A-M, Médail F, Ponel P, Roberts N, Stevens L (2010) Indian Summer monsoon variations could have affected the early-Holocene woodland expansion in the Near East. Holocene 20:813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doğan U (2005) Holocene fluvial development of the upper Tigris Valley (southeastern Turkey) as documented by archaeological data. Quat Int 129:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dönmez EO (2006) Prehistoric and Medieval plant remains from two sites on the Euphrates, south-eastern Turkey. Turk J Bot 30:11–38Google Scholar
  25. Emeis KC, Struck U, Schulz HM, Rosenberg R, Bernasconi S, Erlenkeuser H, Sakamoto T, Martinez-Ruiz F (2000) Temperature and salinity variations of Mediterranean Sea surface waters over the last 16,000 years from records of planktonic stable oxygen isotopes and alkenone unsaturation ratios. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 158:259–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ertekin AS (2002) Plant diversity in Karacadağ area. Sürdürülebilir Kırsal ve Kentsel Kalkınma Derneği, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans JP, Smith RB, Oglesby RJ (2004) Middle East climate simulation and dominant precipitation processes. Int J Clim 24:1,671–1,694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fleitmann D, Cheng H, Badertscher S, Edwards RL, Mudelsee M, Göktürk OM, Tüysyüz O (2009) Timing and climatic impact of Greenland interstadials recorded in stalagmites from northern Turkey. Geophys Res Lett 36:L19,707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fontugne M, Kuzucuoloğlu C, Karabiyikoğlu M, Hatté C, Pastre J-F (1999) From Pleniglacial to Holocene: a 14C chronostratigraphy of environmental changes in the Konya Plain, Turkey. Quat Sci Rev 18:573–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harlan JR (1967) A wild wheat harvest in Turkey. Archaeol 20:197–201Google Scholar
  31. Harlan JR, Zohary D (1966) Distribution of wild wheat and barley. Science 153:1,074–1,080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heiser CB (1988) Aspects of unconscious selection and the evolution of domesticated plants. Euphytica 37:77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Heun M, Schäfer-Pregl R, Klawan D, Castagna R, Accerbi M, Borghi B, Salamini F (1997) Site of Einkorn wheat domestication identified by DNA fingerprinting. Science 278:1,312–1,314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heun M, Haldorsen S, Vollan K (2008) Reassessing domestication events in the Near East: Einkorn and Triticum urartu. Genome 51:444–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hidalgo A, Brandolini A, Pompei C, Piscozzi R (2006) Carotenoids and tocols of Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum L.). J Cereal Sci 44:182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hillman G (1996) Late Pleistocene changes in wild plant-foods available to hunter-gatherers of the northern Fertile Crescent: possible precludes to cereal cultivation. In: Harris DR (ed) The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia. UCL Press, London, pp 159–203Google Scholar
  37. Hillman GC, Davies MS (1990) Measured domestication rates in wild wheats and barley under primitive cultivation, and their archaeological implications. J World Prehist 4:157–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hillman G, Hedges R, Moore A, Colledge S, Pettitt P (2001) New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. Holocene 11:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Honne BI, Heun M (2009) On the domestication genetics of self-fertilizing plants. Veget Hist Archaeobot 18:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson BL (1975) Identification of the apparent B-genome donor of wheat. Canad J Genet Cytol 17:21–39Google Scholar
  41. Johnson SJ, Clausen HB, Dansgaard W, Fuhrer K, Gundestrap N, Hammer CU, Iversen P, Jouzel J, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP (1992) Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core. Nature 359:311–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones MD, Roberts CN, Leng MJ (2007) Quantifying climatic change through the last glacial-interglacial transition based on Lake Isotope palaeohydrology from central Turkey. Quat Res 67:463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaynak G (1989) Contribution to the flora of Karacadağ (Urfa and Diyarbakır Provinces). Doğa TU Bot Derg 13:376–397Google Scholar
  44. Kilian B, Özkan H, Walther A, Kohl J, Dagan T, Salamini F, Martin W (2007) Molecular diversity at 18 loci in 321 wild and 92 domesticate lines reveal no reduction of nucleotide diversity during Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) domestication: Implications for the origin of agriculture. Mol Biol Evol 24:2,657–2,668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kutluk H, Aytug B (2004) Plants of Turkey grid by grid. Birlik Ofset Yayıncılık, EskişehirGoogle Scholar
  46. Landmann G, Kempe S (2005) Annual deposition signal versus lake dynamics: microprobe analysis of Lake Van (Turkey) reveals missing varves in the period 11.2–10.2 ka BP. Facies 51:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Landmann G, Reimer A, Lemcke G, Kempe S (1996) Dating Late Glacial abrupt climate change in the 14,750 long continuous varve record in Lake Van, Turkey. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 122:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lev-Yadun S, Gopher A, Abbo S (2000) The cradle of agriculture. Science 288:1,602–1,603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Litt T, Brauer A, Goslar T, Merkt J, Balaga K, Müller H, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Stebich M, Negendank JFW (2001) Correlation and synchronisation of Lateglacial continental sequences in northern central Europe based on annually-laminated lacustrine sediments. Quat Sci Rev 20:1,233–1,249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Litt T, Krastel S, Sturm M, Kipfer R, Örcen S, Heumann G, Franz SO, Ülgen UB, Niessen F (2009) ‘PALEOVAN’ International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP): site survey results and perspectives. Quat Sci Rev 28:1,555–1,567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lösch S, Grupe G, Peters J (2006) Stable isotopes and dietary adaptions in humans and animals at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Nevalı Çori. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Molberg O, Uhlen AK, Jensen T, Flaete NS, Fleckenstein B, Arentz-Hansen H, Raki M, Lundin KE, Sollid LM (2005) Mapping of gluten T-cell epitopes in the bread wheat ancestors: implications for celiac disease. Gastroenterology 128:393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Molleson T (1994) The eloquent bones of Abu Hureyra. Sci Am 271:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nesbitt M (2002) When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in southwest Asia? In: Cappers RTJ, Bottema S (eds) The dawn of farming in the near east. Studies in the early near eastern production, subsistence, and environment 6. ex oriente, Berlin, pp 113–122Google Scholar
  55. Nesbitt M, Samuel D (1996) From stable crops to extinction? The archaeology and history of the hulled wheats. In: Paludosi S, Hammer K, Heller J (eds) Hulled wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops, workshop on hulled wheats, 21–22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, pp 41–100Google Scholar
  56. Özkan H, Willcox G, Graner A, Salamini F, Kilian B (2010) Geographic distribution and domestication of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). Genet Resour Crop Evol 58:11–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Özkaya V (2009) Excavations at Körtik Tepe. A new pre-pottery neolithic a site in southeastern Anatolia. Neo-Lithics 2(09):3–8Google Scholar
  58. Pasternak R (1998) Investigation of botanical remains from Nevalı Çori, PPNB, Turkey: a short interim report. In: Damania AB, Valkoun J, Willcox G, Qualset CO (eds) The cl. Proceedings of the Harlan symposium. 10–14 May 1997, Aleppo, pp 170–177Google Scholar
  59. Piperno DR, Weiss E, Holst I, Nadel D (2004) Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis. Nature 430:670–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pizzuti D, Buda A, D’Odorico A, D’Incà R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D (2006) Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac disease patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 41:1,305–1,311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pustovoytov K, Schmidt K, Taubald H (2007) Evidence for Holocene environmental changes in the northern Fertile Crescent provided by pedogenic carbonate coatings. Quat Res 67:315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reed JM, Roberts N, Leng MJ (1999) An evaluation of the diatom response to later Quaternary environmental change in two lakes in the Konya Basin, Turkey, by comparison with stable isotope data. Quat Sci Rev 18:631–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roberts N (1983) Age, palaeoenvironments and climatic significance of Late Pleistocene Konya Lake, Turkey. Quat Res 19:154–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Roberts N, Black S, Boyer P, Eastwood WJ, Griffiths HI, Lamb HF, Leng MJ, Parish R, Reed JM, Twigg D, Yiğitbaşioğlu H (1999) Chronology and stratigraphy of late Quaternary sediments in the Konya Basin, Turkey: results from the KOPAL project. Quat Sci Rev 18:611–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roberts N, Reed JM, Leng MJ, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fontugne M, Bertaux J, Woldring H, Bottema S, Black S, Hunt E, Karabıyıkoğlu M (2001) The tempo of Holocene climatic change in the eastern Mediterranean region: new high-resolution crater-lake sediment data from central Turkey. Holocene 11:721–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roberts N, Jones MD, Benkaddour A, Eastwood WJ, Filippi ML, Frogley MR, Lamb HF, Leng MJ, Stein M, Stevens L, Valero-Garćes B, Zanchetta G (2008) Stable isotope records of later Quaternary climate and hydrology from Mediterranean lakes: the ISOMED synthesis. Quat Sci Rev 27:2,426–2,441Google Scholar
  67. Robinson SA, Black S, Sellwood BW, Valdes PJ (2006) A review of palaeoclimates and palaeoenvironments in the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean from 25,000 to 5,000 years BP: setting the environmental background for the evolution of human civilization. Quat Sci Rev 25:1,517–1,541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rosenberg M, Nesbitt RM, Redding RW, Strasser TF (1995) Hallan Çemi Tepesi: some preliminary observations concerning Early Neolithic subsistence behaviours in Eastern Anatolia. Anatolica 21:1–12Google Scholar
  69. Rossignol-Strick M (1995) Sea-land correlation of pollen records in the eastern Mediterranean for the glacial-interglacial transition: biostratigraphy versus radiometric time-scale. Quat Sci Rev 14:893–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sagona A, Zimansky P (2009) Ancient Turkey. Routledge Chapman & Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Savard M, Nesbitt M, Jones MK (2006) The role of wild grasses in subsistence and sedentism: new evidence from the northern Fertile Crescent. World Archaeol 38:179–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schiemann E (1948) Weizen, Roggen, Gerste. Systematik, Geschichte und Verwendung. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  73. Schmidt K (2001) Göbekli Tepe and the Early Neolithic sites of the Urfa region: a synopsis of new results and current views. Neo-Lithics 1(01):9–11Google Scholar
  74. Schmidt K (2005) “Ritual Centers” and the neolitisation of upper Mesopotamia. Neo-Lithics 2(05):13–21Google Scholar
  75. Schmidt K (2008) Sie bauten die ersten Tempel. Das rätselhafte Heiligtum der Steinzeitjäger, DTV, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  76. Siani G, Paterne M, Michel E, Sulpizio R, Sbrana A, Arnold M, Haddad G (2001) Mediterranean Sea surface radiocarbon reservoir age changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Science 294:1,917–1,920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Staubwasser M, Weiss H (2006) Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistoric-early historic West Asia. Quat Res 66:372–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stevens LR, Wright HE Jr, Ito E (2001) Changes in seasonality of climate during the late-Glacial and Holocene at Lake Zeribar, Iran. Holocene 11:747–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tanno K-I, Willcox G (2006) How fast was wild wheat domesticated? Science 311:1,186 (and supporting online material)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Taylor KC, Mayewski PA, Alley RB, Brook EJ, Gow AJ, Grootes PM, Meese DA, Saltzman EJ, Severinghaus JP, Twickler MS, White JWC, Whitlow S, Zielinski GA (1997) The Holocene-Younger Dryas transition recorded at Summit, Greenland. Science 278:825–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Turkish Government General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (2009) Online geological maps. Accessed 9 May 2009
  82. Turkish State Meteorological Service (2009). Accessed 2 Jun 2009
  83. Turner R, Roberts N, Eastwood WJ, Jenkins E, Rosen A (2010) Fire, climate and the origins of agriculture: micro-charcoal records of biomass burning during the last glacial-interglacial transition in southwest Asia. J Quat Sci 25:371–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Van Zeist W, Bottema S (1977) Palynological investigations in Western Iran. Palaeohist 9:19–85Google Scholar
  85. Wasylikowa K, Witkowski A, Walanus A, Hutorowicz A, Alexandrowicz SW, Langer JJ (2006) Palaeolimnology of Lake Zeribar, Iran, and its climatic implications. Quat Res 66:477–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weiss E, Kislev ME, Simchoni Nadel (2004a) Small-grained wild grasses as staple food at the 23000-year-old site of Ohalo II, Israel. Econ Bot 58(supplement):S125–S134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weiss E, Wetterstrom W, Nadel D, Bar-Yosef O (2004b) The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 101:9,551–9,555Google Scholar
  88. Weiss E, Kislev ME, Hartmann A (2006) Autonomous cultivation before domestication. Science 312:1,608–1,610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Weninger B, Alram-Stern E, Bauer E, Clare L, Danzeglocke U, Jöris O, Kubatzki C, Rollefson G, Todorova H, van Andel T (2006) Climate forcing due to the 8200 cal yr BP event observed at Early Neolithic sites in the eastern Mediterranean. Quat Res 66:401–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wick L, Lemcke G, Sturm M (2003) Evidence of Lateglacial and Holocene climatic change and human impact in eastern Anatolia: high-resolution pollen, charcoal, isotopic and geochemical records from the laminated sediments of Lake Van, Turkey. Holocene 13:665–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilkinson TJ (1999) Holocene valley fills of Southern Turkey and northwestern Syria: recent geoarchaeological contributions. Quat Sci Rev 18:555–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Willcox G (2005) The distribution, natural habitats and availability of wild cereals in relation to their domestication in the Near East: multiple events, multiple centres. Veget Hist Archaeobot 14:534–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Willcox G, Buxo R, Herveux L (2009) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene climate and the beginning of cultivation in northern Syria. Holocene 19:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Woldring H (2002) The Early-Holocene vegetation of Central Anatolia and the impact of farming. In: Cappers RTJ, Bottema S (eds) The dawn of farming in the Near East. ex oriente, Berlin, pp 39–48Google Scholar
  95. Woldring H, Bottema S (2003) The vegetation history of East-Central Anatolia in relation to archaeology: the Eski Acιgöl pollen evidence compared with the Near Eastern environment. Palaeohist 43(44):1–34Google Scholar
  96. Zohary D, Hopf M (2000) Domestication of plants in the Old World, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvi Haldorsen
    • 1
  • Hasan Akan
    • 2
  • Bahattin Çelik
    • 2
  • Manfred Heun
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Norwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  2. 2.Harran University, Science and Art FacultyOsmanbeyTurkey

Personalised recommendations