Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 17, Supplement 1, pp 63–71 | Cite as

The earliest finds of cultivated plants in Armenia: evidence from charred remains and crop processing residues in pisé from the Neolithic settlements of Aratashen and Aknashen

Original Article

Abstract

Analyses of charred remains and impressions of chaff in pisé (mudbrick) from the Neolithic sites of Aratashen and Aknashen (sixth millennium cal b.c.) situated in the Ararat valley in Armenia demonstrate that naked barley and possible naked (free-threshing) wheat together with emmer and hulled barley were common. Two lesser known crucifers, Camelina microcarpa (false flax) and Alyssum desertorum (alyssum) were found in the form of crop processing residues. These were frequent in the pisé, indicating their use perhaps as an oil source. Lens culinaris (small-seeded lentil) and Vicia ervilia (bitter vetch) were recovered both as carbonized seeds and from crop processing residues in the pisé. False flax and bitter vetch were less common than alyssum and lentil. Two charred pips of Vitis vinifera (wild vine) were recovered, suggesting the early use of vines in the region. Flotation samples alone would have provided limited data; examination of crop processing residues used for tempering pisé provided important evidence of the plant economy at these two sites.

Keywords

Neolithic Caucasus Early farming Cereals Oil plants Wild plant use 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Archaeology and EthnographyYerevanRepublic of Armenia
  2. 2.CNRSArchéorient UMR 5133BerriasFrance

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