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European Radiology

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 536–545 | Cite as

Varicocele: strategies in diagnosis and treatment

  • F. Cornud
  • X. Belin
  • E. Amar
  • D. Delafontaine
  • O. Hélénon
  • J. F. Moreau
Urogenital radiology

Abstract.

Varicocele can be very easily diagnosed by physical examination and subsequently treated when it is painful or associated with testicular hypotrophy. However, palpability of the spermatic vein and reflux in low grade or even questionable varicoceles can be difficult to assess without imaging modalities. This can be a common problem for all physicians treating hypofertile men to decide whether the varicele needs to be treated or not. However, a gold standard that defines the presence of a subclinical varicocele has not yet been established. The different diagnostic tools based on ultrasonography investigated these past years to define a flow reversal in incontinent spermatic veins are presented in the first part of this review, with emphasis on subclinical varicocele. In the second part, we present our experience, together with a review of the literature concerning embolization of the spermatic veins as an alternative to surgery to treat varicoceles.

Key words: Varicocele Continuous Doppler Pulsed Doppler B mode sonography Color Doppler sonography Spermatic veins embolization 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Cornud
    • 1
  • X. Belin
    • 1
  • E. Amar
    • 2
  • D. Delafontaine
    • 3
  • O. Hélénon
    • 1
  • J. F. Moreau
    • 1
  1. 1.Service de Radiologie, Hôpital Necker, 149 rue de Sèvres, F-75015 Paris, FranceFR
  2. 2.Uro-Andrologue, 19 avenue Victor Hugo, F-75016 Paris, FranceFR
  3. 3.Médecine de la reproduction, 8 rue Jean Richepin, F-75116 Paris, FranceFR

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