Interactive MR-guided biopsies of maxillary and skull-base lesions in an open-MR system: first clinical results
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The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of interactive MR-guided biopsies in the maxillary and skull base region using a 0.5-T open-configuration scanner in patients with tumours affecting the maxilla or skull base. Ten patients with cystic or solid tumours affecting the maxillary and skull base regions underwent MR-guided biopsy in a superconducting, open 0.5-T MR system equipped with an optical frameless stereotaxic system. T2-weighted spin-echo images were acquired prior to and following biopsy, which was performed with 18- or 22-G needles using an enoral or percutaneous approach following infiltration of the skin, mucosa and periosteum with local anaesthetics. The position of the needle tip was continuously updated on fast T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo images (TR 19 ms, TE 7.1 ms, flip angle 30 °, slice thickness 1 cm, field of view 24 × 24 cm) using the frameless stereotaxic system. In addition, the needle was identified based on the associated susceptibility artefact in all three planes. Once the target lesion had been reached, cytology material was aspirated. All ten patients tolerated the interactive MR-guided biopsies well without complications. Vital structures, including the brain, neurovascular bundles, vessels and eyes, were visualized on MR imaging and could be spared. There was no difference in the use of 18- or 22-G non-ferromagnetic needles concerning the susceptibility artefact. Sufficient material for cytological analysis was obtained in nine of ten cases. The mean biopsy time was 15 min. Interactive MR-guided biopsies of the head and neck in an open system are technically feasible and safe. Monitoring of the needle path in multiple planes permits the interactive adjustment of the needle course in near real time. Interactive MR-guided biopsies may well replace open surgical procedures in the maxillary region in selected patients.
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