Renal cystic diseases
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Renal cystic disease comprises a mixed group of heritable, developmental, and acquired disorders. Because of their diverse etiology, histology, and clinical presentation, no single scheme of classification has gained acceptance. Conditions include autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, acquired renal cystic disease, medullary sponge kidney, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, medullary cystic disease, tuberous sclerosis, cysts of the renal sinus, and von Hippel-Lindau's disease. An awareness of the pathology of each cystic disease is helpful in the understanding of the corresponding radiological images. Imaging techniques used in evaluating renal cystic disease include intravenous urography, sonography, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, and renal angiography. Many types of cystic disease show similar imaging features. Meticulous attention to subtle radiological findings is therefore essential for reaching a correct diagnosis. Imaging features requiring analysis include whether the cysts are unilateral or bilateral, renal size and functional status, cyst distribution in the kidneys, and the presence of hemorrhagic and calcified renal cysts, solid renal masses, renal sinus cysts, and cysts in adjacent organs. Radiological findings should be carefully correlated with clinical features such as patient age, family history, symptoms, physical findings, and renal functional status before a diagnosis is attempted.
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