We aimed to evaluate the effect of hepatic steatosis (HS) on liver volume and to develop a formula to estimate lean liver volume correcting the HS effect.
This retrospective study included healthy adult liver donors who underwent gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurement from 2015 to 2019. The degree of HS was graded at 5% PDFF intervals from grade 0 (no HS; PDFF < 5.5%). Liver volume was measured with hepatobiliary phase MRI using deep learning algorithm, and standard liver volume (SLV) was calculated as the reference lean liver volume. The association between liver volume and SLV ratio with PDFF grades was evaluated using Spearman’s correlation (ρ). The effect of PDFF grades on liver volume was evaluated using the multivariable linear regression model.
The study population included 1038 donors (mean age, 31 ± 9 years; 689 men). Mean liver volume to SLV ratio increased according to PDFF grades (ρ = 0.234, p < 0.001). The multivariable analysis indicated that SLV (β = 1.004, p < 0.001) and PDFF grade*SLV (β = 0.044, p < 0.001) independently affected liver volume, suggesting a 4.4% increase in liver volume per one-point increment in the PDFF grade. PDFF-adjusted lean liver volume was estimated using the formula, liver volume/[1.004 + 0.044 × PDFF grade]. The mean estimated lean liver volume to SLV ratio approximated to one for all PDFF grades, with no significant association with PDFF grades (p = 0.851).
HS increases liver volume. The formula to estimate lean liver volume may be useful to adjust for the effect of HS on liver volume.
• Hepatic steatosis increases liver volume.
• The presented formula to estimate lean liver volume using MRI-measured proton density fat fraction and liver volume may be useful to adjust for the effect of hepatic steatosis on measured liver volume.
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Living donor liver transplantation
Proton density fat fraction
Standard liver volume
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This research was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant, funded by the Korean Government (MSIT) (2020R1F1A1048826). National Research Foundation of Korea,2020R1F1A1048826,Seung Soo Lee
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Seung Soo Lee.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statistics and biometry
Na Young Kim kindly provided statistical advice for this manuscript.
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Choi, J.Y., Lee, S.S., Kim, N.Y. et al. The effect of hepatic steatosis on liver volume determined by proton density fat fraction and deep learning–measured liver volume. Eur Radiol 33, 5924–5932 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-023-09603-2