The T1 longitudinal recovery time is regarded as a biomarker of cancer treatment efficiency. In this scope, the Magnetization Prepared 2 RApid Gradient Echo (MP2RAGE) sequence relevantly complies with fast 3D T1 mapping. Nevertheless, with its Cartesian encoding scheme, it is very sensitive to respiratory motion. Consequently, a radial encoding scheme was implemented for the detection and T1 measurement of hepatic metastases in mice at 7T.
A 3D radial encoding scheme was developed using a golden angle distribution for the k-space trajectories. As in that case, each projection contributes to the image contrast, the signal equations had to be modified. Phantoms containing increasing gadoteridol concentrations were used to determine the accuracy of the sequence in vitro. Healthy mice were repetitively scanned to assess the reproducibility of the T1 values. The growth of hepatic metastases was monitored. Undersampling robustness was also evaluated.
The accuracy of the T1 values obtained with the radial MP2RAGE sequence was > 90% compared to the Inversion-Recovery sequence. The motion robustness of this new sequence also enabled repeatable T1 measurements on abdominal organs. Hepatic metastases of less than 1-mm diameter were easily detected and T1 heterogeneities within the metastasis and between the metastases within the same animal were measured. With a twofold acceleration factor using undersampling, high-quality 3D T1 abdominal maps were achieved in 9 min.
The radial MP2RAGE sequence could be used for fast 3D T1 mapping, to detect and characterize metastases in regions subjected to respiratory motion.
• The Cartesian encoding of the MP2RAGE sequence was modified to a radial encoding. The modified sequence enabled accurate T 1 measurements on phantoms and on abdominal organs of mice.
• Hepatic metastases were easily detected due to high contrast. Heterogeneity in T 1 was measured within the metastases and between each metastasis within the same animal.
• As implementation of this sequence does not require specific hardware, we expect that it could be readily available for clinical practice in humans.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Balanced steady-state free precession
Magnetization Prepared 2 RApid Gradient Echoes
Weidensteiner C, Allegrini PR, Sticker-Jantscheff M, Romanet V, Ferretti S, McSheehy PMJ (2014) Tumour T1 changes in vivo are highly predictive of response to chemotherapy and reflect the number of viable tumour cells – a preclinical MR study in mice. BMC Cancer 14:88–100
Ravoori MK, Nishimura M, Singh SP, Lu C, Han L (2015) Tumor T1 relaxation time for assessing response to bevacizumab anti-angiogenic therapy in a mouse ovarian cancer model. PLoS One 10:1–13
Chuang K-H, Koretsky A (2006) Improved neuronal tract tracing using manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with fast T(1) mapping. Magn Reson Med 55:604–611
Castets CR, Koonjoo N, Hertanu A et al (2016) In vivo MEMRI characterization of brain metastases using a 3D Look-Locker T1-mapping sequence. Sci Rep 6:39449–39457
Glover GH, Pauly JM (1992) Projection reconstruction techniques for reduction of motion effects in MRI. Magn Reson Med 28:275–289
Nezafat M, Ramos IT, Henningsson M, Protti A, Basha T, Botnar R (2017) Improved segmented modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping sequence in mice. PLoS One 12:e0187621
Messroghli DR, Nordmeyer S, Buehrer M et al (2011) Small animal Look-Locker inversion recovery (SALLI) for simultaneous generation of cardiac T1 maps and cine and inversion recovery-prepared images at high heart rates: initial experience. Radiology 261:258–265
Winter P, Kampf T, Helluy X et al (2016) Self-navigation under non-steady-state conditions: cardiac and respiratory self-gating of inversion recovery snapshot FLASH acquisitions in mice. Magn Reson Med 76:1887–1894
Castets CR, Ribot EJ, Lefrançois W et al (2015) Fast and robust 3D T 1 mapping using spiral encoding and steady RF excitation at 7T: application to cardiac manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in mice. NMR Biomed 28:881–889
Wang D, Zwart NR, Pipe JG (2017) Joint water-fat separation and deblurring for spiral imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:3218–3228
Coolen BF, Geelen T, Paulis LEM, Nauerth A, Nicolay K, Strijkers GJ (2011) Three-dimensional T1 mapping of the mouse heart using variable flip angle steady-state MR imaging. NMR Biomed 24:154–162
Stikov N, Boudreau M, Levesque IR, Tardif C, Barral K, Pike GB (2015) On the accuracy of T1 mapping: searching for common ground. Magn Reson Med 522:514–522
Marques JP, Kober T, Krueger G, van der Zwaag W (2010) NeuroImage MP2RAGE , a self-bias-field corrected sequence for improved segmentation and T1-mapping at high field. Neuroimage 49:1271–1281
Næss-Schmidt ET, Tietze A, Mikkelsen IK et al (2015) Patch-based segmentation from MP2RAGE images: comparison to conventional techniques. First International Workshop on Patch-based Techniques in Medical Images (Patch-MI 2015), Oct 2015, Munich, Germany. Patch-Based Techniques in Medical Imaging First International Work- shop, Patch-MI 2015, held in conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 9, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, 9467, pp.180-187, 2016, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. <10.1007/978-3-319-28194-0 22>. <hal-01290510>
Fujimoto K, Polimeni JR, van der Kouwe AJW et al (2014) Quantitative comparison of cortical surface reconstructions from MP2RAGE and multi-echo MPRAGE data at 3 and 7T. Neuroimage 90:60–73
Marques JP, Gruetter R (2013) New developments and applications of the MP2RAGE sequence - focusing the contrast and high spatial resolution R1 mapping. PLoS One 8:e69294
Trotier A, Rappachi S, Faller T, Miraux S, Ribot EJ (2019) Compressed-sensing MP2RAGE sequence: application to the detection of brain metastases in mice at 7T. Magn Reson Med 81:551–559
Driencourt L, Romero CJ, Lepore M, Eggenschwiler F, Reynaud O, Just N (2017) T1 mapping of the mouse brain following fractionated manganese administration using MP2RAGE. Brain Struct Funct 222:201–214
Koktzoglou I (2013) 4D dark blood arterial wall magnetic resonance imaging: methodology and demonstration in the carotid arteries. Magn Reson Med 69:956–965
Beaumont M, Lamalle L, Segebarth C, Barbier EL (2007) Improved k-space trajectory measurement with signal shifting. Magn Reson Med 58(1):200–205
Morris VL, MacDonald IC, Koop S, Schmidt EE, Chambers AF, Groom AC (1993) Early interactions of cancer cells with the microvasculature in mouse liver and muscle during hematogenous metastasis: videomicroscopic analysis. Clin Exp Metastasis 11:377–390
Ribot EJ, Duriez TJ, Trotier AJ, Thiaudiere E, Franconi JM, Miraux S (2015) Self-gated bSSFP sequences to detect iron-labeled cancer cells and/or metastases in vivo in mouse liver at 7 Tesla. J Magn Reson Imaging 41:1413–1421
Limentani GB, Ringo MC, Ye F, Bergquist ML, MacSorley EO (2005) Beyond the t-test: statistical equivalence testing. Anal Chem 77:221–226
Ribot EJ, Trotier AJ, Castets CR et al (2016) Free-breathing 3D diffusion MRI for high-resolution hepatic metastasis characterization in small animals. Clin Exp Metastasis 33:167–178
Guilfoyle DN, Dyakin VV, O’Shea J, Pell GS, Helpern JA (2003) Quantitative measurements of proton spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times in the mouse brain at 7.0 T. Magn Reson Med 49:576–580
Lee DK, Han S, Cho HJ (2017) Optimization of sparse phase encodings for variable repetition-delay turbo-spin echo (TSE) T1 measurements for preclinical applications. J Magn Reson 274:57–64
Rioux JA, Levesque IR, Rutt BK (2016) Biexponential longitudinal relaxation in white matter: characterization and impact on T1 mapping with IR-FSE and MP2RAGE. Magn Reson Med 75:2265–2277
Kecskemeti S, Samsonov A, Hurley SA, Dean DC, Field A, Alexander AL (2016) MPnRAGE: a technique to simultaneously acquire hundreds of differently contrasted MPRAGE images with applications to quantitative T1 mapping. Magn Reson Med 75:1040–1053
Feng L, Axel L, Chandarana H, Block KT, Sodickson DK, Otazo R (2016) XD-GRASP: golden-angle radial MRI with reconstruction of extra motion-state dimensions using compressed sensing. Magn Reson Med 75:775–788
Huang C, Graff CG, Clarkson EW, Bilgin A, Altbach MI (2012) T2 mapping from highly undersampled data by reconstruction of principal component coefficient maps using compressed sensing. Magn Reson Med 67:1355–1366
Weingärtner S, Akçakaya M, Roujol S et al (2015) Free-breathing post-contrast three-dimensional T1 mapping: volumetric assessment of myocardial T1 values. Magn Reson Med 73:214–222
Bhave S, Lingala SG, Johnson CP, Magnotta VA, Jacob M (2016) Accelerated whole-brain multi-parameter mapping using blind compressed sensing. Magn Reson Med 75:1175–1186
Shin W, Shin T, Oh S-H, Lowe MJ (2016) CNR improvement of MP2RAGE from slice encoding directional acceleration. Magn Reson Imaging 34:779–784
This study has received funding by the Laboratory of Excellence TRAIL ANR-10-LABX-57.
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Emeline J Ribot.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.
Approval from the Animal Care and Use Institutional ethics committee of Bordeaux was obtained.
• performed at one institution
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Faller, T.L., Trotier, A.J., Miraux, S. et al. Radial MP2RAGE sequence for rapid 3D T1 mapping of mouse abdomen: application to hepatic metastases. Eur Radiol 29, 5844–5851 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06081-3
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Three-dimensional imaging