Diffusion tensor imaging of articular cartilage using a navigated radial imaging spin-echo diffusion (RAISED) sequence
- 148 Downloads
To validate a radial imaging spin-echo diffusion tensor (RAISED) sequence for high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of articular cartilage at 3 T.
The RAISED sequence implementation is described, including the used non-linear motion correction algorithm. The robustness to eddy currents was tested on phantoms, and accuracy of measurement was assessed with measurements of temperature-dependent diffusion of free water. Motion correction was validated by comparing RAISED with single-shot diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (EPI) measures. DTI was acquired in asymptomatic subjects (n = 6) and subjects with doubtful (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade 1, n = 9) and mild (KL = 2, n = 9) symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). MD and FA values without correction, and after all corrections, were calculated. A test-retest evaluation of the DTI acquisition on three asymptomatic and three OA subjects was also performed.
The root mean squared coefficient of variation of the global test-restest reproducibility was 3.54% for MD and 5.34% for FA. MD was significantly increased in both femoral condyles (7–9%) of KL 1 and in the medial (11–17%) and lateral (10–12%) compartments of KL 2 subjects. Averaged FA presented a trend of lower values with increasing KL grade, which was significant for the medial femoral condyle (-11%) of KL 1 and all three compartments in KL 2 subjects (-18 to -11%). Group differences in MD and FA were only significant after motion correction.
The RAISED sequence with the proposed reconstruction framework provides reproducible assessment of DTI parameters in vivo at 3 T and potentially the early stages of the disease in large regions of interest.
• DTI of articular cartilage is feasible at 3T with a multi-shot RAISED sequence with non-linear motion correction.
• RAISED sequence allows estimation of the diffusion indices MD and FA with test-retest errors below 4% (MD) and 6% (FA).
• RAISED-based measurement of DTI of articular cartilage with non-linear motion correction holds potential to differentiate healthy from OA subjects.
KeywordsArticular cartilage Diffusion tensor imaging Osteoarthritis Reproducibility of results Magnetic resonance imaging
Coefficient of variation
Diffusion tensor imaging
Lateral femoral condyle
Medial femoral condyle
Magnetic resonance imaging
Radial imaging spin-echo diffusion tensor
This study has received funding from the (US) National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) of the National Institute of Health (NIH), Grant/Award Number R01AR067789.
Compliance with ethical standards
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
The scientific guarantor of this publication is José G Raya, PhD.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.
Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• case-control study
• performed at one institution
- 11.Berstein MA, King KF, Zhou XJ (2004) Chapter 14 − Basic pulse sequences. In: Berstein MA, King KF, Zhou XJ (eds) Handbook of MRI pulse sequences, 1st editionGoogle Scholar
- 18.Dietrich O (2018) Diffusion coefficients of water. Available via http://dtrxde/od/diff/. Accessed 2018-07-08 2018
- 21.König L, Groher M, Keil A, Glaser C, Reiser M, Navab N (2007) Semi-automatic segmentation of the patellar cartilage in MRI. Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 17:404–408Google Scholar
- 22.Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D et al (1986) Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis. Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American Rheumatism Association. Arthritis Rheum 29:1039–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Guizar-Sicairos M (2008) Efficient subpixel image registration by cross-correlation https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/18401-efficient-subpixel-imageregistration-by-cross-correlation?requestedDomain=www.mathworks.com. Accessed 1 Jan 2016
- 30.Heule R, Ganter C, Bieri O (2014) Rapid estimation of cartilage T with reduced T sensitivity using double echo steady state imaging. Magn Reson Med 71(3):1137–1143. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.24748
- 31.Staroswiecki E, Granlund KL, Alley MT, Gold GE, Hargreaves BA (2012) Simultaneous estimation of T(2) and apparent diffusion coefficient in human articular cartilage in vivo with a modified three-dimensional double echo steady state (DESS) sequence at 3 T. Magn Reson Med 67:1086–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Raya JG, Horng A, Dietrich O et al (2009) Voxel-based reproducibility of T2 relaxation time in patellar cartilage at 1.5 T with a new validated 3D rigid registration algorithm. MAGMA 22:229–239Google Scholar
- 40.Xu J, Xie G, Di Y, Bai M, Zhao X (2011) Value of T2-mapping and DWI in the diagnosis of early knee cartilage injury. J Radiol Case Rep 5:13–18Google Scholar