European Radiology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 2203–2207 | Cite as

Development of pumping emulsification device with glass membrane to form ideal lipiodol emulsion in transarterial chemoembolization

  • Toshihiro Tanaka
  • Tetsuya Masada
  • Hideyuki Nishiofuku
  • Yasushi Fukuoka
  • Takeshi Sato
  • Shota Tatsumoto
  • Nagaaki Marugami
  • Shushi Higashi
  • Kimihiko Kichikawa



To evaluate a pumping emulsification device that can improve the physiochemical properties and stability of lipiodol emulsion for conventional transarterial chemoembolization.

Materials and methods

A pumping emulsification device constructed of a glass membrane with a hydrophobic surface with pore size of 50 μm in diameter was placed between two syringe adaptors. Epirubicin solutions were mixed with lipiodol with pumping exchanges using the emulsification device or a three-way cock. The ratios of epirubicin solution to lipiodol were 1:2 or 1:1. A total of 120 emulsions were created.


The emulsification device showed significantly higher percentages of water-in-oil when compared with the three-way cock (97.9 % vs. 68.9 % in 1:2 ratio, and 82.1 % vs. 17.8 % in 1:1 ratio, p < .001). Droplet sizes in the emulsification device were more homogenous. Mean droplet sizes and viscosities in the emulsification device did not show any significant changes for 30 min after pumping, whereas in the three-way cock, the droplet sizes significantly enlarged and viscosities significantly decreased (p=.023 and p=.002).


The emulsification device can form a high percentage of water-in-oil emulsion with stable droplets sizes and viscosities. This developed device is promising to increase therapeutic effects in conventional transarterial chemoembolization.

Key points

We developed new device for transarterial chemoembolization for liver cancer.

The device can improve the physiochemical properties of lipiodol emulsion.

The device can increase the therapeutic effects in conventional transarterial chemoembolization.


Radiology, interventional Liver Neoplasm Hepatic artery Ethiodized oil 



This was a collaborated study between Nara Medical University, SPG Technology Co. Ltd and Kyushu Medical Resources Mediator. We thank Mr. Fujiwara, SPG Technology, for support for this study and Ms. Marian Pahud for advice on submitting this article.


The authors state that this work has not received any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards


The scientific guarantor of this publication is Prof. Kimihiko Kichiakwa, Nara Medical University.

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.

Statistics and biometry

No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was not required for this study because it did not involve humans.

Ethical approval

Institutional Review Board approval was not required because this was an experimental study.


• experimental

Supplementary material

330_2017_5197_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (14.5 mb)
ESM 1 (MP4 14824 kb)


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshihiro Tanaka
    • 1
  • Tetsuya Masada
    • 1
  • Hideyuki Nishiofuku
    • 1
  • Yasushi Fukuoka
    • 1
  • Takeshi Sato
    • 1
  • Shota Tatsumoto
    • 1
  • Nagaaki Marugami
    • 1
  • Shushi Higashi
    • 2
  • Kimihiko Kichikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNara Medical UniversityKashiharaJapan
  2. 2.Medical City, East HospitalKashiharaJapan

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