Prediction of the histopathologic findings of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: qualitative and quantitative assessment of diffusion-weighted imaging
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To correlate qualitative and quantitative diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) characteristics of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with histopathologic tumour grade and fibrosis content.
Fifty-one patients (21M/30F; mean age 61y) with ICC and MRI including DWI were included in this IRB-approved multicentre retrospective study. Qualitative tumour features were assessed. Tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mean, minimum, and normalized (nADCliver) values were computed. Tumour grade [well(G1), moderately(G2), or poorly differentiated(G3)] and tumour fibrosis content [minimal(1), moderate(2), or abundant(3)] were categorized pathologically. Imaging findings and ADC values were compared with pathologic measures. Utility of ADC values for predicting tumour grade was assessed using ROC analysis.
51 ICCs (mean size 6.5±1.1 cm) were assessed. 33/51(64%) of ICCs demonstrated diffuse hyperintensity and 15/51(29%) demonstrated target appearance on DWI. Infiltrative morphology (p=0.02) and tumour size (p=0.04) were associated with G3. ADCmean and nADCmean of G3 (1.32±0.47x10-3 mm2/sec and 0.97±0.95) were lower than G1+G2 (1.57±0.39x10-3 mm2/sec and 1.24±0.49; p=0.03 and p=0.04). ADCmean and nADCmean were inversely correlated with tumour grade (p<0.025). No correlation was found between ADC and tumour fibrosis content. AUROC, sensitivity and specificity of nADCmean for G3 versus G1+G2 were 0.71, 89.5% and 55.5%.
ADC quantification has reasonable accuracy for predicting ICC grade.
• ADC quantification was useful for predicting ICC tumour grade.
• Infiltrative tumour morphology and size were associated with poorly differentiated ICCs.
• ADC values depended more on ICC tumour grade than fibrosis content.
• Ability to predict ICC tumour grade non-invasively could impact patient management.
KeywordsDiffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Liver Neoplasms Cholangiocarcinoma Tumour Grading Fibrosis
The authors state that this work has not received any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Sara Lewis, MD.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• multicentre study
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