Larger corpus callosum and reduced orbitofrontal cortex homotopic connectivity in codeine cough syrup-dependent male adolescents and young adults
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To characterize interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity and their relationships with impulsive behaviour in codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS)-dependent male adolescents and young adults.
We compared volumes of corpus callosum (CC) and its five subregion and voxel-mirrored homotopic functional connectivity (VMHC) in 33 CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and 38 healthy controls, group-matched for age, education and smoking status. Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS.11) was used to assess participant impulsive behaviour. Abnormal CC subregions and VMHC revealed by group comparison were extracted and correlated with impulsive behaviour and duration of CCS use.
We found selective increased mid-posterior CC volume in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and detected decreased homotopic interhemispheric functional connectivity of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Moreover, impairment of VMHC was associated with the impulsive behaviour and correlated with the duration of CCS abuse in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults.
These findings reveal CC abnormalities and disruption of interhemispheric homotopic connectivity in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults, which provide a novel insight into the impact of interhemispheric disconnectivity on impulsive behaviour in substance addiction pathophysiology.
• CCS-dependent individuals (patients) had selective increased volumes of mid-posterior corpus callosum
• Patients had attenuated interhemispheric homotopic FC (VMHC) of bilateral orbitofrontal cortex
• Impairment of VMHC correlated with impulsive behaviour in patients
• Impairment of VMHC correlated with the CCS duration in patients
KeywordsCough medicine Interhemispheric Corpus callosum Addiction Connectivity
This work was supported by the grants from the Natural Scientific Foundation of China [Grant No. 81201084, 81560283], the Natural Scientific Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China [Grant No. 20151BAB205049], and Planned Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China [Grant No. 2011B031800044]. We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Professor Junzhang Tian. The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article. No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study. No study subjects or cohorts have been previously reported. Methodology: prospective, case–control study, performed at one institution.
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