European Radiology

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 3588–3597 | Cite as

Four-dimensional flow MRI for evaluation of post-stenotic turbulent flow in a phantom: comparison with flowmeter and computational fluid dynamics

  • Jihoon Kweon
  • Dong Hyun YangEmail author
  • Guk Bae Kim
  • Namkug Kim
  • MunYoung Paek
  • Aurelien F. Stalder
  • Andreas Greiser
  • Young-Hak Kim



To validate 4D flow MRI in a flow phantom using a flowmeter and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as reference.


Validation of 4D flow MRI was performed using flow phantoms with 75 % and 90 % stenosis. The effect of spatial resolution on flow rate, peak velocity and flow patterns was investigated in coronal and axial scans. The accuracy of flow rate with 4D flow MRI was evaluated using a flowmeter as reference, and the peak velocity and flow patterns obtained were compared with CFD analysis results.


4D flow MRI accurately measured the flow rate in proximal and distal regions of the stenosis (percent error ≤3.6 % in axial scanning with 1.6-mm resolution). The peak velocity of 4D flow MRI was underestimated by more than 22.8 %, especially from the second half of the stenosis. With 1-mm isotropic resolution, the maximum thickness of the recirculating flow region was estimated within a 1-mm difference, but the turbulent velocity fluctuations mostly disappeared in the post-stenotic region.


4D flow MRI accurately measures the flow rates in the proximal and distal regions of a stenosis in axial scan but has limitations in its estimation of peak velocity and turbulent characteristics.

Key points

4D flow MRI accurately measures the flow rate in axial scan.

The peak velocity was underestimated by 4D flow MRI.

4D flow MRI demonstrates the principal pattern of post-stenotic flow.


4D flow MRI Pathological constriction Dimensional measurement accuracy Computational fluid dynamics 



Computational fluid dynamics


Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging


Signal-to-noise ratio



Dong Hyun Yang and Young-Hak Kim contributed equally to this article. The scientific guarantor of this publication is Young-Hak Kim. MY Paek, AF Stalder and A Greiser A are employees of Siemens Healthcare. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2013R1A1A1058711) as well as by a grant from the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI12C0630). The study was supported by a grant (2014-7204) from the Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper. This study is a phantom study, therefore, institutional review board approval and informed consent were not required. Methodology: experimental, performed at one institution.


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jihoon Kweon
    • 1
  • Dong Hyun Yang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Guk Bae Kim
    • 2
  • Namkug Kim
    • 2
  • MunYoung Paek
    • 3
  • Aurelien F. Stalder
    • 4
  • Andreas Greiser
    • 4
  • Young-Hak Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Siemens HealthcareSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Siemens HealthcareErlangenGermany

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