European Radiology

, Volume 24, Issue 9, pp 2261–2270 | Cite as

Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the meniscus (dGEMRIM) in patients with knee osteoarthritis: relation with meniscal degeneration on conventional MRI, reproducibility, and correlation with dGEMRIC

  • Jasper van Tiel
  • Gyula Kotek
  • Max Reijman
  • Pieter K. Bos
  • Esther E. Bron
  • Stefan Klein
  • Jan A. N. Verhaar
  • Gabriel P. Krestin
  • Harrie Weinans
  • Edwin H. G. Oei



To assess (1) whether normal and degenerated menisci exhibit different T1GD on delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the meniscus (dGEMRIM), (2) the reproducibility of dGEMRIM and (3) the correlation between meniscus and cartilage T1GD in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients.


In 17 OA patients who underwent dGEMRIM twice within 7 days, meniscus and cartilage T1GD was calculated. Meniscus pathology was evaluated on conventional MRI. T1GD in normal and degenerated menisci were compared using a Student’s t-test. Reproducibility was assessed using ICCs. Pearson’s correlation was calculated between meniscus and cartilage T1GD.


A trend towards lower T1GD in degenerated menisci (mean: 402 ms; 95 % CI: 359–444 ms) compared to normal menisci (mean: 448 ms; 95 % CI: 423–473 ms) was observed (p = 0.05). Meniscus T1GD ICCs were 0.85–0.90. The correlation between meniscus and cartilage T1GD was moderate in the lateral (r = 0.52–0.75) and strong in the medial compartment (r = 0.78–0.94).


Our results show that degenerated menisci have a clear trend towards lower T1GD compared to normal menisci. Since these results are highly reproducible, meniscus degeneration may be assessed within one delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI simultaneously with cartilage. The strong correlation between meniscus and cartilage T1GD suggests concomitant degeneration in both tissues in OA, but also suggests that dGEMRIC may not be regarded entirely as sulphated glycosaminoglycan specific.

Key Points

dGEMRIM T1 GD can possibly be used to assess meniscal degeneration;

dGEMRIM yields highly reproducible meniscal T1 GD in early stage osteoarthritic patients;

Concomitant degeneration of cartilage and meniscus tissue occurs in early stage osteoarthritis;

dGEMRIC cannot be regarded as entirely sulphated glycosaminoglycan specific.


Osteoarthritis, knee Menisci, tibial Magnetic resonance imaging Cartilage, articular dGEMRIC 

Abbreviations and acronyms

95 % CI

95 % confidence interval


anterior horn of the meniscus


body mass index


delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage


delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the meniscus


fast spin echo


intraclass correlation coefficient


magnetic resonance imaging






posterior horn of the meniscus


regions of interest


sulphated glycosaminoglycans


inversion times


weight-bearing cartilage of the femoral condyles


weight-bearing cartilage of the tibial plateaus



The scientific guarantor of this publication is Prof. G.P. Krestin, MD, PhD. The authors of this manuscript declare relationships with the following companies: G.P. Krestin is a consultant to General Electric Healthcare and has a collaboration contract with them. The other authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article. This study has received funding by:

We acknowledge the SmartMix Programme of The Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs and The Netherlands Ministry of Education, Culture and Science for their financial support.

No complex statistical methods were necessary for this article. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study. Methodology: prospective, observational, performed at one institution.


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasper van Tiel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gyula Kotek
    • 2
  • Max Reijman
    • 1
  • Pieter K. Bos
    • 1
  • Esther E. Bron
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stefan Klein
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jan A. N. Verhaar
    • 1
  • Gabriel P. Krestin
    • 2
  • Harrie Weinans
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Edwin H. G. Oei
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Erasmus MCUniversity Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Erasmus MCUniversity Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MCUniversity Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Biomechanical EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity Medical CenterUtrechtThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Department of RheumatologyUniversity Medical CenterUtrechtThe Netherlands

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