Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review
- 466 Downloads
To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia.
We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure.
From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged ≥60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged ≥60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data.
Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia.
• We reviewed databanks with structural MR brain images of normal older people.
• Among these nine databanks, 98 normal subjects ≥60 years were openly accessible.
• None had all the required sequences, random subject retrieval or statistical results.
• More access, subjects, sequences, metadata, searchability and results are needed.
• These may improve understanding of normal brain ageing and diagnoses of dementia.
KeywordsMagnetic resonance imaging Normality Databanks Review Brain disease
This work was carried out in The University of Edinburgh Brain Research Imaging Centre (BRIC; http://www.bric.ed.ac.uk/) and the University of Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre (http://www.abdn.ac.uk/ims/imaging/)—both centres are part of the Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) collaboration (http://www.sinapse.ac.uk/) that is funded by the Scottish Funding Council, Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office, and the six collaborator Universities—and in Toshiba Medical Visualisation Systems Europe (TMVSE; http://www.tmvse.com/). We thank the funders of this work as follows. Prof. Joanna M. Wardlaw was funded by the Scottish Funding Council and Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office through the SINAPSE collaboration; David Alexander Dickie was funded by a SINAPSE industrial collaboration (SPIRIT) PhD scholarship with TMVSE, a Medical Research Council (MRC) scholarship, and the Tony Watson Scholarship bequest to The University of Edinburgh; Dr Dominic E. Job was funded by Wellcome Trust Grant 007393/Z/05/Z; Dr Trevor S. Ahearn was funded by SINAPSE and the University of Aberdeen; Dr Roger T. Staff was funded by NHS Grampian; Dr Alison D. Murray was funded by NHS Grampian via the University of Aberdeen.
- 8.Luengo-Fernandez R, Leal J, Gray A (2010) Dementia 2010: The economic burden of dementia and associated research funding in the United Kingdom. University of Oxford for the Alzheimer’s Research TrustGoogle Scholar
- 10.Department of Health (2009) Living well with dementia: A National Dementia Strategy. LondonGoogle Scholar
- 12.Freedman D (2010) Statistical Models and Causal Inference: A Dialogue with the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 16.Mazziotta J, Toga A, Evans A, Fox P, Lancaster J, Zilles K, Woods R, Paus T, Simpson G, Pike B, Holmes C, Collins L, Thompson P, MacDonald D, Iacoboni M, Schormann T, Amunts K, Palomero-Gallagher N, Geyer S, Parsons L, Narr K, Kabani N, Le Goualher G, Boomsma D, Cannon T, Kawashima R, Mazoyer B (2001) A probabilistic atlas and reference system for the human brain: International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:1293–1322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Wardlaw JM, Bastin ME, Valdés Hernández MC, Muñoz Maniega S, Royle NA, Morris Z, Clayden JD, Sandeman EM, Eadie E, Murray C, Starr JM, Deary IJ (2011) Brain ageing, cognition in youth and old age, and vascular disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: rationale, design and methodology of the imaging protocol. Int J Stroke 6:547–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Ellis KA, Bush AI, Darby D, De Fazio D, Foster J, Hudson P, Lautenschlager NT, Lenzo N, Martins RN, Maruff P (2009) The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging: methodology and baseline characteristics of 1112 individuals recruited for a longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Int Psychogeriatr 21:672–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG (2009) The PRISMA Statement. Available: http://www.prisma-statement.org/statement.htm. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 33.EQUATOR Network (2011) About EQUATOR. Available: http://www.equator-network.org/about-equator/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 34.The Cardiovascular Health Study (2010) Data Distribution Policy. Available: http://www.chs-nhlbi.org/CHS_DistribPolicy.htm. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 35.The AddNeuroMed Study (2011) Data Access. Available: http://www.innomed-addneuromed.com/index.cfm?PID=108. Accessed 07 September 2011
- 36.Simmons A, Westman E, Muehlboeck S, Mecocci P, Vellas B, Tsolaki M, Koszewska I, Wahlund LO, Soininen H, Lovestone S, Evans A, Spenger C (2011) The AddNeuroMed framework for multi centre MRI assessment of Alzheimer's disease: experience from the first 24 months. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 26:75–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Neuroinformatics Research Group (2011) BrainSCAPE. Available: http://nrg.wustl.edu/project/data-sharing/. Accessed 10 October 2011
- 38.Johnson KA, Becker JA (1999) The Whole Brain Atlas. Available: http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/home.html. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 40.Sato K, Taki Y, Fukuda H, Kawashima R (2003) Japanese Reference Brains. Available: http://www.idac.tohoku.ac.jp/JHBP/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 41.Allen Institute for Brain Science (2011) Allen Human Brain Atlas. Available: http://human.brain-map.org/mri_viewers/data. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 43.Evans AC (2006) The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development Database. Available: https://nihpd.crbs.ucsd.edu/nihpd/info/index.html. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 44.Cocosco CA, Kollokian V, Remi KSK, Pike GB, Evans AC (1997) Brainweb: Online interface to a 3D MRI simulated brain database. NeuroImage 5:s425Google Scholar
- 45.McConnell Brain Imaging Centre of the Montreal Neurological Institute (2004) BrainWeb: Simulated MRI Volumes for Normal Brain Database. Available: http://mouldy.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/brainweb/selection_normal.html. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 46.The IMAGEN Consortium (2011) Imagen Europe−6th Framework Project. Available: http://www.imagen-europe.com/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 47.Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) (2009) Morphometry BIRN Multi-site Multi-session Structural MRI Data. Available: http://www.birncommunity.org/data-catalog/morphometry-birn-multi-site-multi-session-structural-mri-data/. Accessed 10 October 2011
- 48.Van Essen Lab (2001) Surface Management System Database. Available: http://sumsdb.wustl.edu:8081/sums/index.jsp. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 50.Sorensen AG, Wu O (2010) International Stroke Database. Available: http://www.strokedatabase.org/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 51.Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory (2009) NIRL Imaging Database. Available: http://nirlarc.duhs.duke.edu/nirle/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 52.Milham M, Buckner RL, Castellanos FX, Margulies D, Zang Y, Mennes M, Gutman D, Bangaru S, Craddock C, LaConte S, Mostofsky S, Villringer A (2011) 1000 Functional Connectomes Project. Available: http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/index.html. Accessed October 10 2011
- 53.Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) (2011) Function BIRN Data Repository. Available: http://fbirnbdr.nbirn.net:8080/BDR/index.jsp. Accessed 07 October 2011
- 55.Department of Radiology University of Pennsylvania (2008) Brain Image Database (BRAID). Available: http://www.rad.upenn.edu/sbia/braid/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 57.Research Imaging Institute UTHSCSA (2010) BrainMap Database. Available: http://brainmap.org/index.html. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 58.BRAINnet Foundation (2009) BRAINnet Database. Available: http://www.brainnet.net/what-data-are-available/mri-fmri-and-dti/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 59.Technical University of Denmark Informatics (2009) Brede Database. Available: http://neuro.imm.dtu.dk/services/jerne/brede/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 60.The Center for Morphometric Analysis MGH HMS (2002) Internet Brain Volume Database. Available: http://www.cma.mgh.harvard.edu/ibvd/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 61.McConnell Brain Imaging Centre of the Montreal Neurological Institute (2010) Atlases. Available: http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/ServicesAtlases/HomePage. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 65.Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (2011) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Available: http://adni.loni.ucla.edu/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 66.Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (2011) LONI Image Data Archive (IDA) − Data Access. Available: https://ida.loni.ucla.edu/services/Menu/IdaData.jsp?page=DATA&subPage=AVAILABLE_DATA. Accessed 12 May 2011
- 67.Toga AW (2009) LONI Image Data Archive User Manual. Laboratory Of Neuro Imaging, UCLAGoogle Scholar
- 68.Ellis KA, Rowe CC, Villemagne VL, Martins RN, Masters CL, Salvado O, Szoeke C, Ames D (2010) Addressing population aging and Alzheimer's disease through the Australian imaging biomarkers and lifestyle study: Collaboration with the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative. Alzheimers Dement 6:291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 70.Bullitt E, Smith JK, Lin W (2010) Designed Database of MR Brain Images of Healthy Volunteers. Available: http://www.insight-journal.org/midas/community/view/21. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 71.Van Horn JD, Grethe JS, Kostelec P, Woodward JB, Aslam JA, Rus D, Rockmore D, Gazzaniga MS (2001) The functional magnetic resonance imaging data center (fMRIDC): the challenges and rewards of large-scale databasing of neuroimaging studies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:1323–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 72.Van Horn JD, Grethe JS, Kostelec P, Woodward JB, Aslam JA, Rus D, Rockmore D, Gazzaniga MS (2007) The fMRI Data Center. Available: http://www.fmridc.org/f/fmridc/index.html. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 73.Biomedical Image Analysis Group Imperial College London (2010) Information eXtraction from Images (IXI) dataset. Available: http://www.brain-development.org/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 74.Hill DLG, Hawkes D, Williams S (2010) Information eXtraction from Images (IXI): Details of Grant. Available: http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/ViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=GR/S21533/02. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 75.Rowland A, Burns M, Hartkens T, Hajnal JV, Rueckert D, Hill DLG (2004) Information extraction from images (IXI): Image processing workflows using a grid enabled image database. Distributed Databases in Medical Image Computing Workshop MICCAI, Rennes, FranceGoogle Scholar
- 76.Marcus DS, Wang TH, Parker J, Csernansky JG, Morris JC, Buckner RL (2007) Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Available: http://www.oasis-brains.org/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 78.Marcus DS, Olsen TR, Ramaratnam M, Buckner RL (2011) XNAT Central. Available: http://central.xnat.org/. Accessed 31 May 2011
- 80.ADNI (2011) ADNI Publications. Available: http://www.adni-info.org/Scientists/ADNIScientistsHome/ADNIPublications.aspx. Accessed 26 June 2011
- 81.Google Scholar (2011) Search within articles citing Marcus: Open access series of imaging studies (OASIS): cross-sectional MRI data in young, middle aged, nondemented, and demented older adults. Available: http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?cluster=14063688880671780453&hl=en&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=1,5. Accessed 2 September 2011