European Radiology

, Volume 16, Issue 12, pp 2670–2686 | Cite as

Understanding multislice CT urography techniques: many roads lead to Rome

  • Claus Nolte-ErnstingEmail author
  • Nigel Cowan


CT urography has emerged as a serious alternative to conventional urography by utilizing the advantages of modern multislice CT techniques for the visualization of the entire upper urinary tract. Several different examination techniques have been developed in multislice CT (MSCT) urography for improving the opacification and distension of the urinary tract. All efforts in performing MSCT urography have to compromise between the best possible image quality and a reasonably low radiation exposure. Initial low-dose examination protocols are already available. Operating modern MSCT urography properly is not difficult, but it presupposes basic knowledge on the variety of current MSCT urography techniques, including such issues as present-day indications, split-bolus injection, compression, saline infusion, low-dose diuretic administration, hybrid scanning, timing of the acquisition delay, examination protocols, postprocessing, image analysis, and radiation exposure. This article is not intended to provide guidelines of how to conduct MSCT urography, but everyone will be able to understand the functionality of several robust operating MSCT urography techniques, which helps making an individual selection for the clinical practice. In the near future, systematic studies are awaited evaluating the morphologic and diagnostic accuracy of MSCT urography regarding diverse urinary tract disorders.


Urography Multislice computed tomography Urinary tract Urothelium Kidney 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyThe Churchill HospitalOxfordUK

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