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Extrahepatic spread of hepatocellular carcinoma: a pictorial review

  • Hepatobiliary–Pancreas
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Although extrahepatic spread of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon, it can be found anywhere in the body. Most extrahepatic metastases of HCC occur in patients with advanced-stage intrahepatic tumor, but incidental extrahepatic lesions have also occasionally been found in patients with early-stage intrahepatic HCC. The detection of extrahepatic metastatic disease is crucial when planning therapy for patients with HCC and should be used to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. In this study we illustrate the radiologic findings of extrahepatic metastases of HCC involving various sites. The presumed mechanism of extrahepatic extension of HCC is also discussed.

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Hong, S., Kim, T., Sung, KB. et al. Extrahepatic spread of hepatocellular carcinoma: a pictorial review. Eur Radiol 13, 874–882 (2003).

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