Stability of the lipid biomarker H-Print within preserved animals
- 91 Downloads
Highly branched isoprenoid lipid (HBI) biomarkers have been reported in a wide range of Arctic animals spanning all trophic levels. The HBI biomarker-based ‘H-Print’ has been used to estimate the relative contributions of sea ice- and phytoplankton-derived primary production utilised by Arctic animals. The resulting data are providing insight into the future impact of climate change-associated sea ice decline on ecosystems. Given the range of methods available to preserve biological tissues between sampling and analysis, it was considered important to test the suitability of these methods for storage prior to the analysis of HBI lipids. In the laboratory, Artemia sp. were fed diatoms containing HBIs of known proportion. These were then harvested and stored wet- and dry-frozen and in ethanol and 4% formalin. After 6 months, Artemia sp. H-Prints stored in ethanol were significantly different from the control, whereas H-Prints from all other methods were not significantly different from the control. Dry-frozen Artemia sp. H-Prints bared the closest similarity to the control, representing the best method tested for tissue preservation prior to analysis of HBIs. This study will contribute to improving the robustness of HBI-based H-Print analyses in rapidly changing Arctic ecosystems.
KeywordsH-Print HBI IP25 Storage Food web Sea ice primary production
I thank the Scottish Association for Marine Science for financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
I declare no conflicts of interest existed whilst preparing and writing this study.
- Brown TA, Belt ST, Philippe B, Mundy CJ, Massé G, Poulin M, Gosselin M (2011) Temporal and vertical variations of lipid biomarkers during a bottom ice diatom bloom in the Canadian Beaufort Sea: further evidence for the use of the IP25 biomarker as a proxy for spring Arctic sea ice. Polar Biol 34:1857–1868. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-010-0942-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brown TA, Belt ST, Ferguson SH, Yurkowski DJ, Davison NJ, Barnett JEF, Jepson PD (2013) Identification of the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 and related lipids in marine mammals: a potential method for investigating regional variations in dietary sources within higher trophic level marine systems. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 441:99–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grebmeier JM (2012) Shifting patterns of life in the Pacific Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas. Ann Rev Mar Sci 4:63–78. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120710-100926 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Halliday N (1939) The effect of formalin fixation on liver lipids. J Biol Chem 129:65–69Google Scholar