Polar Biology

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 277–289 | Cite as

Potential energy gain by whales outside of the Antarctic: prey preferences and consumption rates of migrating humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)

  • Kylie Owen
  • Ailbhe S. Kavanagh
  • Joseph D. Warren
  • Michael J. Noad
  • David Donnelly
  • Anne W. Goldizen
  • Rebecca A. Dunlop
Original Paper

Abstract

The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) makes annual migrations from Antarctic feeding grounds to tropical breeding grounds. The extent to which it feeds during migration is unknown, but thought to be very low. Whether an animal feeds during migration is likely dependent on prey availability and on the ease with which it can capture the available prey. This study used digital tags (DTAGs) and concurrent prey sampling to measure how changes in the depth and type of prey influenced the lunge feeding rates and the amount of energy consumed by migrating humpback whales. Whales targeting krill lunged at significantly higher rates than whales targeting fish; however, the depth of the prey did not influence lunge rate. The observed lunge rates when feeding on krill, to the best of our knowledge, are higher than any previously reported rates of whales feeding. Estimates of the energetic content of the prey ingested revealed that whales may consume between 1.2 and 3.4 times their daily energy requirements per day while feeding on krill during migration, but less when feeding on fish. This suggests that whales may begin to restock energy supplies prior to reaching the Antarctic. Determining how often this high rate of energy intake occurs along the migratory route will assist with understanding the contribution of migratory energy intake to annual energy budgets.

Keywords

Energy budget Lunge feeding Krill Megaptera novaeangliae Migratory stopover Southern Ocean 

References

  1. Acevedo J, Plana J, Aguayo-Lobo A, Pastene LA (2011) Surface feeding behaviour of whales in the Magellan Strait. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr 46(3):483–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen J, Weinrich M, Hoppitt W, Rendell L (2013) Network-based diffusion analysis reveals cultural transmission of lobtail feeding in humpback whales. Science 340:485–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alves LCPDS, Andriolo A, Zerbini A, Pizzorno JLA, Clapham P (2009) Record of feeding by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in tropical waters off Brazil. Mar Mam Sci 25:416–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bairlein F (1987) Nutritional requirements for maintenance of body weight and fat deposition in the long-distance migratory garden warbler, Sylvia borin (Boddaert). Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 86:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bairlein F, Gwinner E (1994) Nutritional mechanisms and temporal control of migratory energy accumulation in birds. Annu Rev Nutr 14:187–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker CS, Herman LM (1981) Migration and local movement of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) through Hawaiian waters. Can J Zool 59:460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barlow J, Kahru M, Mitchell BG (2008) Cetacean biomass, prey consumption, and primary production requirements in the California Current ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 371:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumgartner M, Mate BR (2003) Summertime foraging ecology of North Atlantic right whales. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 264:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beardsley RC, Epstein AW, Chen C, Wishner KF, Macaulay MC, Kenney RD (1996) Spatial variability in zooplankton abundance near feeding right whales in the Great South Channel. Deep-Sea Res II 43:1601–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Best PB, Sekiguchi K, Findlay KP (1995) A suspended migration of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae on the west coast of South Africa. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 118:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blix AS, Folkow LP (1995) Daily energy expenditure in free living whales. Acta Physiol Scand 153:61–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolker BM, Brooks ME, Clark CJ, Geange SW, Poulsen JR, Stevens MHH, White JS (2008) Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evolut 24:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyd IL (2002) Energetics: consequences for fitness. In: Hoelzel AR (ed) Marine mammal biology: an evolutionary approach. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 247–277Google Scholar
  15. Brodie PF (1975) Cetacean energetics, an overview of intraspecific size variation. Ecology 56:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bunce A (2001) Prey consumption of Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) breeding in Port Phillip Bay, southeast Australia, and potential overlap with commercial fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci 58:904–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cacchione DA, Drake DE, Field ME, Tate GB (1987) Sea-floor gouges caused by migrating grey whales off northern California. Cont Shelf Res 7:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Childerhouse S (2013) Revised project outlines for the Southern Ocean Research Partnership. Rep Int Whaling Comm. SC/63/O13Google Scholar
  19. Chittleborough RG (1965) Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Aust J Mar Fresh Res 16:33–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clapham PJ, Mead JG (1999) Megaptera novaeangliae. Mamm spec 604:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Conti SG, Demer DA (2006) Improved parameterization of the SDWBA for estimating krill target strength. ICES J Mar Sci 63:928–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Croll DA, Acevedo-Gutiérrez A, Tershy B, Urbán-Ramírez J (2001) The diving behavior of blue and fin whales: is dive duration shorter than expected based on oxygen stores? Comp Biochem Physiol 129A:797–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Croxall JP, Reid K, Prince PA (1999) Diet, provisioning and productivity responses of marine predators to differences in availability of Antarctic krill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 177:115–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Curtice C, Johnston DW, Ducklow H, Gales N, Halpin PN, Friedlaender AS (2015) Modelling the spatial and temporal dynamics of foraging movements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Move Ecol 3:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dawbin WH (1966) The seasonal migratory cycle of humpback whales. In: Norris KS (ed) Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 145–170Google Scholar
  26. Doniol-Valcroze T, Lesage V, Giard J, Michaud R (2011) Optimal foraging theory predicts diving and feeding strategies of the largest marine predator. Behav Ecol 22:880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunstan GA, Sinclair AJ, O’Dea K, Naughton JM (1988) The lipid content and fatty acid composition of various marine species from southern Australian coastal waters. Comp Biochem Physiol 91B:165–169Google Scholar
  28. FAO (1994) Surveys of the fish resources of Namibia. NORAD-FAO/UNDP Project GLO 82/001. Annex VII Length-weight relations. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ai102e/ai102e15.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2014Google Scholar
  29. Flores H, Atkinson A, Kawaguchi S, Frafft BA, Milinevsky G, Nicol S, Reiss C, Tarling GA, Werner R, Bravo Rebolledo E, Cirelli V, Cuzin-Roudy J, Fielding S, Groeneveld JJ, Haraldsson M, Lombana A, Marschoff E, Meyer B, Pakhomov EA, Rombola E, Schmidt K, Siegel V, Teschke M, Tonkes H, Toullec JY, Trathan PN, Tremblay N, Van de Putte AP, van Franeker JA, Werner T (2012) Impact of climate change on Antarctic krill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 458:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Foote KG, Knudsen HP, Vestnes G, MacLennan DN, Simmonds EJ (1987) Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimates: a practical guide. ICES Coop Res, Rep 144 Google Scholar
  31. Fournier DA, Skaug HJ, Ancheta J, Ianelli J, Magnusson A, Maunder M, Nielsen A, Sibert J (2012) AD Model Builder: using automatic differentiation for statistical inference of highly parameterized complex nonlinear models. Optim Meth Softw 27:233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Friedlaender AS, Lawson GL, Halpin PN (2009a) Evidence of resource partitioning between humpback and minke whales around the western Antarctic Peninsula. Mar Mam Sci 25:402–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Friedlaender AS, Hazen EL, Nowacek DP, Halpin PN, Ware C, Weinrich MT, Hurst T, Wiley D (2009b) Diel changes in humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae feeding behavior in response to sand lance Ammodytes spp. behavior and distribution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 395:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Friedlaender AS, Tyson RB, Stimpert AK, Read AJ, Nowacek DP (2013) Extreme diel variation in the feeding behavior of humpback whales along the western Antarctic Peninsula during autumn. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 494:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gales N, Double MC, Robinson SC, Jenner C, Jenner M, King E, Gedamke J, Paton D, Raymond B (2009) Satellite tracking of southbound East Australian humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): challenging the feast or famine model for migrating whales. Rep Int Whaling Comm. Report number: SC/61/SH17Google Scholar
  36. Gambell R (1968) Seasonal cycles and reproduction in sei whales of the Southern Hemisphere. Disc Rep 35:31–134Google Scholar
  37. Gill PC, Evans KJ, Wapstra H (1996) Feeding by humpback whales in Tasmanian waters. Rec Queen Vic Mus 107:1–5Google Scholar
  38. Goldbogen JA, Calambokidis J, Shadwick RE, Oleson EM, McDonald MA, Hildebrand JA (2006) Kinematics of foraging dives and lunge-feeding in fin whales. J Exp Biol 209:1231–1244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldbogen JA, Calambokidis J, Croll DA, Harvey JT, Newton KM, Oleson EM, Schorr G, Shadwick RE (2008) Foraging behavior of humpback whales: kinematic and respiratory patterns suggest a high cost for a lunge. J Exp Biol 211:3712–3719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldbogen JA, Calambokidis J, Croll DA, McKenna MF, Oleson E, Potvin J, Pyenson ND, Schorr G, Shadwick RE, Tershy BR (2011) Scaling of lunge-feeding performance in rorqual whales: mass-specific energy expenditure increases with body size and progressively limits diving capacity. Func Ecol 26:216–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gorska N, Ona E, Korneliussen R (2005) Acoustic backscattering by Atlantic mackerel as being representative of fish that lack a swim bladder: backscattering by individual fish. ICES J Mar Sci 62:984–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guglielmo CG (2010) Move that fatty acid: fuel selection and transport in migratory birds and bats. Integr Comp Biol 50:336–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamner WM (1984) Aspects of schooling in Euphausia superba. J Crust Biol 4:67–74Google Scholar
  44. Houston AI, Carbone C (1992) The optimal allocation of time during the diving cycle. Behav Ecol 3:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hunt GL, Heinemann D, Everson I (1992) Distribution and predator-prey interactions of macaroni penguins, Antarctic fur seals, and Antarctic krill near Bird Island, South Georgia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 86:15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Innes S, Lavigne DM, Earle WM, Kovacs KM (1986) Estimating feeding rates of marine mammals from heart mass to body mass ratios. Mar Mam Sci 2:227–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson MP, Tyack PL (2003) A digital acoustic recording tag for measuring the response of wild marine mammals to sound. IEEE J Ocean Eng 28:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jurasz CM, Jurasz VP (1979) Feeding modes of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae in southeast Alaska. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 31:69–83Google Scholar
  49. Kenney RD, Hyman MAM, Owen RE, Scott GP, Winn HE (1986) Estimation of prey densities required by western North Atlantic right whales. Mar Mam Sci 2:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kleiber M (1975) The fire of life: an introduction to animal energetics. R. E. Krieger Publishing, HuntingtonGoogle Scholar
  51. Lambertson RH (1983) Internal mechanism of rorqual feeding. J Mamm 64:76–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Laws RM (1984) Seals. In: Laws RM (ed) Antarctic ecology, vol 2. Academic Press, London, pp 621–715Google Scholar
  53. Leaper R, Lavigne D (2001) Scaling prey consumption to body mass in cetaceans. Rep Int Whaling Comm SC/J02/FW2Google Scholar
  54. Leaper R, Lavigne D (2007) How much do large whales eat? J Cet Res Man 9:179–188Google Scholar
  55. Lockyer C (1981) Growth and energy budgets of large baleen whales from the Southern Hemisphere. In: Mammals in the seas, vol III, General papers and large cetaceans. FAO Fish. Ser. 5, pp 379–487Google Scholar
  56. Lowry LJ, Testa W, Calvert W (1988) Winter feeding of crabeater and leopard seals near the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biol 8:475–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lynam CP, Brierley AS, Axelsen BE (2004) Pinging down the food web: multi-frequency acoustic discrimination of jellyfish and fish. Int Counc Explor Sea Counc Meet Doc 6:21Google Scholar
  58. Mackintosh NA, Wheeler JFG (1929) Southern blue and fin whales. Discov Rep 1:257–540Google Scholar
  59. Mann J (1999) Behavioral sampling for cetaceans: a review and a critique. Mar Mam Sci 15:102–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Matthews LH (1937) The humpback whale, Megaptera nodosa. Disc Rep 17:7–92Google Scholar
  61. Mayo CA, Letcher BH, Scott S (2001) Zooplankton filtering efficiency of the baleen of a North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis. J Cet Res Man 2:225–229Google Scholar
  62. McWilliams SR, Guglielmo C, Pierce B, Klaassen M (2004) Flying, fasting and feeding in birds during migration: a nutritional and ecological perspective. J Avian Biol 35:377–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Misund OA, Coetzee JC, Freon P, Gardener M, Olsen K, Svellingen I, Hampton I (2003) Schooling behaviour of Sardine Sardinops sagax in False Bay, South Africa. Afr J Mar Sci 25:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mitchell SK (1979) Interobserver agreement, reliability, and generalizability of data collected in observational studies. Psychol Bull 86:376–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Newton I (2006) Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds? J Ornithol 147:146–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nicol S, Foster I (2003) Recent trends in the fishery for Antarctic krill. Aquat Liv Res 16:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nicol S, Worby A, Leaper R (2008) Changes in the Antarctic sea ice ecosystem: potential effects on krill and baleen whales. Mar Fresh Res 59:361–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nicol S, Foster J, Kawaguchi S (2012) The fishery for Antarctic krill- recent developments. Fish Fish 13:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nowacek DP, Friedlaender AS, Halpin PN, Hazen EL, Johnston DW, Read AJ, Espinasse B, Zhou M, Zhu Y (2011) Super-aggregations of krill and humpback whales in Wilhelmina Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. PLoS ONE 6:e19173CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Brien DP (1988) Surface schooling behaviour of the coastal krill Nyctiphanes australis (Crustacea: Euphuasiacae) off Tasmania, Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 42:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Owen K, Warren JD, Noad MJ, Donnelly D, Goldizen AW, Dunlop RA (2015) Effect of prey type on the fine-scale feeding behaviour of migrating east Australian humpback whales. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 541:231–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Owen K, Dunlop RA, Monty JP, Chung D, Noad MJ, Donnelly D, Goldizen AW, Mackenzie T (2016) Detecting the surface-feeding behavior of rorqual whales in accelerometer data. Mar Mam Sci 32:327–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Parrish JD (1997) Patterns of frugivory and energetic condition in nearactic landbirds during autumn migration. Condor 99:681–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Piatt JF, Methven DA (1992) Threshold foraging behaviour of baleen whales. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 84:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reilly S, Hedley S, Borberg J, Hewitt R, Thiele D, Watkins J, Naganobu M (2004) Biomass and energy transfer to baleen whales in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res II 51:1397–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reinhardt SB, Van Vleet ES (1986) Lipid composition of twenty-two species of Antarctic midwater zooplankton and fish. Mar Biol 91:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reiss CS, Cossio AM, Loeb V, Demer DA (2008) Variations in the biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) around the South Shetland Islands, 1996–2006. ICES J Mar Sci 65:497–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ressler PH, Dalpadado P, Macaulay GJ, Handegard N, Skern-Mauritzen M (2015) Acoustic surveys of euphausiids and models of baleen whale distribution in the Barents sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 527:13–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salden DR (1989) An observation of apparent feeding by a sub-adult humpback whale off Maui, Hawaii. In: Abstracts of the Eighth Biennial conference on the biology of marine mammals, Pacific Grove, CA, pp 58Google Scholar
  80. Sawyer H, Kauffman MJ (2011) Stopover ecology of a migratory ungulate. J Anim Ecol 80:1078–1087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sidhu GS, Montgomery WA, Holloway GL, Johnson AR, Walker DM (1970) Biochemical composition and nutritive value of krill (Euphausia suberba dana). J Sci Food Agri 21:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Silva IF, Kaufman GD, Hutsel A, Macie A, Maldini D, Rankin R (2010) Mid-migration humpback whale feeding behavior off Eden, NSW, Australia. Rep Inter Whaling Comm. Report Number SC/63/SH12Google Scholar
  83. Silva MA, Prieto R, Jonsen I, Baumgartner MF, Santos RS (2013) North Atlantic Blue and Fin Whales Suspend Their Spring Migration to Forage in Middle Latitudes: Building up Energy Reserves for the Journey? PLoS ONE 8:e76507CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Simmonds J, MacLennan D (2005) Fisheries acoustics: theory and practice, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, p 437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Simon M, Johnson M, Madsen PT (2012) Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding. J Exp Biol 215:3786–3798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Skaug H, Fournier D, Nielsen A, Magnusson A, Bolker B (2013) Generalized linear mixed models using AD model builder. R package version 0.7.5Google Scholar
  87. Stamation KA, Croft DB, Shaughnessy PD, Waples KA (2007) Observations of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding during their southward migration along the coast of southeastern New South Wales, Australia: identification of a possible supplemental feeding ground. Aquat Mamm 33:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stimpert AK, Peavey LE, Friedlaender AS, Nowacek DP (2012) Humpback whale song and foraging behavior on an Antarctic feeding ground. PLoS ONE 7:e51214CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Stockin KA, Burgess EA (2005) Opportunistic feeding of an adult humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrating along the coast of Southeastern Queensland, Australia. Aquat Mamm 31:120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stone GS, Katona SK, Tucker EB (1987) History, migration and present status of Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae at Bermuda. Biol Cons 42:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Swingle WM, Barco SG, Pitchford TD, McLellan WA, Pabst DA (1993) Appearance of juvenile humpback whales feeding in the near shore waters off Virginia. Mar Mam Sci 9:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tarling GA, Klevjer T, Fielding S, Watkins J, Atkinson A, Murphy E, Korb R, Whitehouse M, Leaper R (2009) Variability and predictability of Antarctic krill swarm structure. Deep-Sea Res Part I 56:1994–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. R Development Core Team (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
  94. Tershy B, Acevedo-Gutiérrez A, Breese D, Strong C (1993) Diet and feeding behavior of fin and Bryde’s whales in the Central Gulf of California, México. Rev Invest Cient 1:31–37Google Scholar
  95. Tyson RB, Friedlaender AS, Ware C, Stimpert AK, Nowacek DP (2012) Synchronous mother and calf foraging behaviour in humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae insights from multi-sensor suction cup tags. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 457:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vestheim H, Jarman SN (2008) Blocking primers to enhance PCR amplification of rare sequences in mixed samples – a case study on prey DNA in Antarctic krill stomachs. Front Zool 5:12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Vikingsson GA (1997) Feeding of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) off Iceland – diurnal and seasonal variation and possible rates. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 22:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Virtue P, Johannes RE, Nicols PD, Young JW (1995) Biochemical composition of Nyctiphanes australis and its possible use as an aquaculture feed source: lipids, pigments and fluoride content. Mar Biol 122:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Visser F, Hartman KL, Pierce GJ, Valavanis VD, Huisman J (2011) Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 440:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ware C, Friedlaender AS, Nowacek DP (2011) Shallow and deep lunge feeding of humpback whales in fjords of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Mar Mam Sci 27:587–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Warren JD, Demer DA (2010) Abundance and distribution of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) nearshore of Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, Antarctica, during six austral summers between 2000 and 2007. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 67:1159–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weber J, Haman F (2004) Oxidative fuel selection: adjusting mix and flux to stay alive. Intern Cong Ser 1275:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Weber TC, Pena H, Jech JM (2009) Consecutive acoustic observations of an Atlantic herring school in the Northwest Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci 66:1270–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wiebe PH, Ashjian CJ, Gallager SM, Davis CS, Lawson GL, Copley NJ (2004) Using a high powered strobe light to increase the catch of Antarctic krill. Mar Biol 114:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wiedenmann J, Cresswell KA, Goldbogen J, Potvin J, Mangel M (2011) Exploring the effects of reductions in krill biomass in the Southern Ocean on blue whales using a state-dependent foraging model. Ecol Model 222:3366–3379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wiley D, Ware C, Bocconcelli A, Cholewiak D, Friedlaender A, Thompson M, Weinrich M (2011) Underwater components of humpback whale bubble-net feeding behaviour. Behaviour 148:575–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Woodward BL, Winn JP, Fish FE (2006) Morphological specializations of baleen whales associated with hydrodynamic performance and ecological niche. J Morph 267:1284–1294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Zotos A, Vouzanidou M (2012) Seasonal changes in composition, fatty acid, cholesterol and mineral content of six highly commercial fish species of Greece. Food Sci Tech Intern 18:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kylie Owen
    • 1
  • Ailbhe S. Kavanagh
    • 1
  • Joseph D. Warren
    • 2
  • Michael J. Noad
    • 1
  • David Donnelly
    • 3
  • Anne W. Goldizen
    • 4
  • Rebecca A. Dunlop
    • 1
  1. 1.Cetacean Ecology and Acoustics Laboratory, School of Veterinary ScienceThe University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  2. 2.Acoustic Laboratory for Ecological Studies, School of Marine and Atmospheric SciencesStony Brook UniversitySouthamptonUSA
  3. 3.Australian Orca DatabaseBox Hill SouthAustralia
  4. 4.Behavioural Ecology Research Group, School of Biological SciencesThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations