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Table 2 Zone of avoidance found around main roads, power lines and tourist resorts or population centres at the regional scale in studies of domesticated reindeer, wild reindeer and caribou, based on an extended search for wild reindeer and caribou in the Web of Science

From: Do human activity and infrastructure disturb domesticated reindeer? The need for the reindeer’s perspective

Type of disturbance Domesticated reindeer (R. t. tarandus) Wild reindeer (R. t. tarandus) Caribou (R. t. ssp)
Zone of avoidance (km) Season Source Zone of avoidance (km) Season Source Zone of avoidance (km) Season Source
Population centres 2.5 Winter Anttonen et al. (2011) 5 Winter Nellemann et al. (2000) 3 Summer Polfus et al. (2011)
  8–12 All year Helle and Särkelä (1993) 2.5–5 Winter Nellemann et al. (2001) 9 Winter Polfus et al. (2011)
  4 All year Helle et al. (2012) 15 Winter Nellemann et al. (2010)    
  4 Calving Vistnes and Nellemann (2001)       
Mines        14 Winter Boulanger et al. (2012)
        0.25
2
Summer
Winter
Polfus et al. (2011)
Polfus et al. (2011)
        4
6
All year
Calving
Weir et al. (2007)
Weir et al. (2007)
Wind power (construction) 3.5 Calving Skarin et al. (2013)       
Main roads 1.5 All year Anttonen et al. (2011) 5 Winter Nellemann et al. (2001) 2 All year Polfus et al. (2011)
  1 Summer Lundqvist (2007) 1–10 All year Panzacchi et al. (2012) 4 Calving Cameron et al. (2005)
     5 Winter Luell and Strand (2006) 5 All year Leblond et al. (2013)
     2.5 Summer Vistnes et al. (2008) 4 Calving Joly et al. (2006)
        1.25 All year Leblond et al. (2011)
Hydro power     4 Summer Nellemann et al. (2003) 3 All year Mahoney and Schaefer (2002)
Power lines 4 Calving Vistnes and Nellemann (2001) 2.5 Winter Nellemann et al. (2001)