Antarctic DNA barcoding; a drop in the ocean?
- 389 Downloads
Coordinated, circum-Antarctic sampling expeditions during International Polar Year 2008/09 have given access to comprehensive collections suitable for DNA barcoding. Collaborations between the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML), the Marine Barcode of Life project and the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding have enabled the Antarctic scientific community to initiate large-scale DNA barcoding projects to record the genetic diversity of Antarctic marine fauna, coordinated by the CAML Barcoding Campaign. A total of 20,355 marine specimens from more than 2,000 morphospecies covering 18 phyla are in the processing pipeline, and to date, 11,530 sequences have been processed with the remainder due by the end of 2010. Here, we present results on the current geographic and taxonomic coverage of DNA barcode data in the Southern Ocean and identify the remaining gaps. We show how DNA barcoding in the Antarctic is answering important questions regarding marine genetic diversity and challenging current assumptions of species distribution at the poles.
KeywordsCircumpolarity Marine Cryptic species Biodiversity Southern Ocean
We are grateful to the team at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding (supported by Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute) for their support to the CAML research community. We would also like to thank the following contributors: Louise Allcock, Nadia Ameziane, Claudia Arango, Martin Collins, Bruno Danis, Agnes Dettai, Marc Eleaume, Charlotte Havermans, Christoph Held, Joe Hoffman, Russ Hopcroft, Alexis Janosik, Tim O’Hara, Peter Smith, Stefano Schiaparelli, Ken Halanych, Guilliaume LeCointre, Florian Leese, Tim Littlewood, Sarah Mincks, Christoph Schubart, Myriam Schueller, Jan Strugnell, Odile Volontiero, Bob Ward. We also thank two anonymous referees. This paper is contribution to CAML number 29.
- Arango CP, Soler Membrives A, Miller KJ (2010) Genetic differentiation in the Circum-Antarctic sea spider Nymphon australe (Pycnogonida; Nymphonidae). Deep-Sea Res Pt II doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.05.019 (in press)
- Brandt A, Brix S, Brökeland W, Cedhagen T, Choudhury M, Cornelius N, Danis B, De Mesel I, Diaz RJ, Gillan DC, Hilbig B, Howe J, Janussen D, Kaiser S, Linse K, Malyutina M, Brandão SN, Pawlowski J, Raupach M, Gooday AJ (2007) The Southern Ocean deep sea: first insights into biodiversity and biogeography. Nature 447:307–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bucklin A, Steinke D, Blanco-Bercial L (2011) DNA bar coding of marine metazoa. Ann Rev Mar Sci 3:18.11–18.38Google Scholar
- Clarke A, Johnston NM (2003) Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 41:47–114Google Scholar
- Hardy S, Carr C, Hardman M, Steinke D, Corstorphine E, Mah C (2010) Biodiversity and phylogeography of Arctic marine fauna: insights from molecular tools marine biodiversity. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–16Google Scholar
- Lörz AN, Maas EW, Linse K, Coleman CO (2009) Do circum-Antarctic species exist in peracarid Amphipoda? A case study in the genus Epimeria Costa, 1851 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Epimeriidae). In: Bruce N (ed) Advances in the taxonomy and biogeography of Crustacea in the Southern Hemisphere, vol 18. ZooKeys, pp 91–128Google Scholar