Polar Biology

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 689–698 | Cite as

The krill maturity cycle: a conceptual model of the seasonal cycle in Antarctic krill

  • So KawaguchiEmail author
  • Toshihiro Yoshida
  • Luke Finley
  • Paul Cramp
  • Stephen Nicol
Original Paper


A long-term study on the maturity cycle of Antarctic krill was conducted in a research aquarium. Antarctic krill were either kept individually or in groups for 8 months under different temperature and food conditions, and the succession of female maturity stages and intermoult periods were observed. In all cases regression and re-maturation of external sexual characteristics were observed, but there were differences in length of the cycle and intermoult periods between the experimental conditions. Based on these results, and information available from previous studies, we suggest a conceptual model describing seasonal cycle of krill physiology which provides a framework for future studies and highlight the importance of its link to the timings of the environmental conditions.


Reproductive Season Ovarian Cycle Antarctic Krill Moult Cycle Maturity Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank A Constable for his useful discussion on the conceptual model. We also thank V Siegel and J Watkins for constructive comments on the earlier version of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • So Kawaguchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Toshihiro Yoshida
    • 2
  • Luke Finley
    • 3
  • Paul Cramp
    • 1
  • Stephen Nicol
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Government Antarctic DivisionDepartment of Environment and HeritageKingstonAustralia
  2. 2.IASOSUniversity of TasmaniaTASAustralia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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