Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 689–698 | Cite as

The krill maturity cycle: a conceptual model of the seasonal cycle in Antarctic krill

  • So KawaguchiEmail author
  • Toshihiro Yoshida
  • Luke Finley
  • Paul Cramp
  • Stephen Nicol
Original Paper

Abstract

A long-term study on the maturity cycle of Antarctic krill was conducted in a research aquarium. Antarctic krill were either kept individually or in groups for 8 months under different temperature and food conditions, and the succession of female maturity stages and intermoult periods were observed. In all cases regression and re-maturation of external sexual characteristics were observed, but there were differences in length of the cycle and intermoult periods between the experimental conditions. Based on these results, and information available from previous studies, we suggest a conceptual model describing seasonal cycle of krill physiology which provides a framework for future studies and highlight the importance of its link to the timings of the environmental conditions.

Keywords

Reproductive Season Ovarian Cycle Antarctic Krill Moult Cycle Maturity Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank A Constable for his useful discussion on the conceptual model. We also thank V Siegel and J Watkins for constructive comments on the earlier version of the manuscript.

References

  1. Atkinson A, Siegel V, Pakhomov E, Rothery P (2004) Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432:100–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson A, Shreeve RS, Hirst AG, Rothery P, Tarling GA, Pond DW, Korb RE, Murphy EJ, Watkins JL (2006) Natural growth rates in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba): II predictive models based on food, temperature, body length, sex, and maturity stage. Limnol Oceanogr 51:973–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker AdeC, Clark MR, Harris MJ (1973) The N.I.O combination net (RMT 1 + 8) and further development of Rectangular Midwater Trawls. J Mar Biol Ass UK 53:176–184Google Scholar
  4. Bargmann HE (1945) The development and life-history of adolescent and adult krill Euphausia superba. Disc Rep 23:103–176Google Scholar
  5. Buchholz F (1991) Moult cycle and growth of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba in the laboratory. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 69:217–229Google Scholar
  6. Candy SG, Kawaguchi S (2006) Modelling growth of Antarctic krill II novel approach to describing the growth trajectory. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 306:17–30Google Scholar
  7. Constable AJ, Nicol S, Strutton PG (2003) Southern Ocean productivity in relation to spatial and temporal variation in the physical environment. J Geophys Res 108 (C4). DOI 10.1029/2001JC001270Google Scholar
  8. Cuzin-Roudy J (2000) Seasonal reproduction, multiple spawning, and fecundity in northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, and Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57(Suppl 3):6–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cuzin-Roudy J, Labat JP (1992) Early summer distribution of Antarctic krill sexual development in the Scotia-Weddell region: a multivariate approach. Polar Biol 12:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuzin-Roudy J, Buchholz F (1999) Ovarian development and spawning in relation to the moult cycle in Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea: Euphausiacea), along a climate gradient. Mar Biol 133:267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Denys CJ, Mcwhinnie MA (1982) Fecundity and ovarian cycles of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (Crustacea, Euphausiacea). Can J Zool 60:2414–2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Falk-Petersen S, Hagen W, Kattner G, Clarke A, Sargent J (2000) Lipids, trophic relationships, and biodiversity in Arctic and Antarctic krill. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57(Suppl 3):178–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hagen W, Van Vleet ES, Kattner G (1996) Seasonal lipid storage as overwintering strategy of Antarctic krill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 134:85–89Google Scholar
  14. Hartnoll RG (2001) Growth in crustacean-twenty years on. Hydrobiologia 449:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hirano Y, Matsuda T, Kawaguchi S (2003) Breeding Antarctic krill in captivity. Mar Fresh Behav Physiol 36:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iguchi N, Ikeda T (1995) Growth, metabolism and growth efficiency of a euphausiid, crustacean Euphausia pacifica in the southern Japan Sea, as influenced by temperature. J Plankton Res 17:1757–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iguchi N, Ikeda T (2005) Effects of temperature on metabolism, growth and growth efficiency of Thysanoessa longipes (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) in the Japan Sea. J Plankton Res 27:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ikeda T (1985) Life history of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba: a new look from an experimental approach. Bull Mar Sci 37:599–608Google Scholar
  19. Ikeda T, Thomas T (1987) Moulting interval and growth of juvenile Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fed different concentrations of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in the laboratory. Polar Biol 7:339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackowski E (2002) Distribution and size of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba DANA) in Polish commercial catches taken in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean from 1997 to 1999. CCAMLR Sci 9:83–105Google Scholar
  21. Kawaguchi S, Candy SG, King R, Naganobu M, Nicol S (2006) Modelling growth of Antarctic krill I Growth trends with sex, length, season and region. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 306:1–15Google Scholar
  22. King R, Nicol S, Cramp P, Swadling KM (2003) Krill maintenance and experimentation at the Australian Antarctic Division. Mar Fresh Behav Physiol 36:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mackintosh NA (1973) Distribution of post-larval krill in the Antarctic. Disc Rep 36:95–156Google Scholar
  24. Makarov RR (1975) A study of the second maturation of euphausiid (Eucarida, Euphausiacea) females (in Russian). Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal 54:670–681Google Scholar
  25. Makarov RR, Denys CJ (1981) Stages of sexual maturity of Euphausia superba Dana. BIOMASS Handbook 11:1–11Google Scholar
  26. Marr JWS (1962) The natural history and geography of the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Disc Rep 32:33–464Google Scholar
  27. Marschall HP (1988) The overwintering strategy of Antarctic krill under the pack-ice of the Weddell Sea. Polar Biol 9:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nelson K (1991) Scheduling of reproduction in relation to molting and growth in malacostracan crustaceans. In: Wenner A, Kuris A (eds) Crustacean egg production, vol 7. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 77–133Google Scholar
  29. Poleck TP, Denys CJ (1982) Effect of temperature on the molting, growth and maturation of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) under laboratory conditions. Mar Biol 70:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium (2002) Things that Antarctic krill tells us (In Japanese) News Letter Sakanakana. Port of Nagoya Aquarium. 34:1–4Google Scholar
  31. Reid K (2001) Growth of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba at South Georgia. Mar Bio 138:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ross RM, Quetin LB (2000) Reproduction in Euphausiacea. In: Everson I. (ed) Krill biology, ecology and fisheries. Blackwell, Cambridge. pp 150–181Google Scholar
  33. Siegel V (2005) Distribution and population dynamics of Euphausia superba: summary of recent findings. Polar Biol 29:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Siegel V, Loeb V (1995) Recruitment of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and possible causes for its variability. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 123:45–56Google Scholar
  35. Siegel V, Loeb V, Bergstrom B, Scholing S, Haraldsson M, Kitchener J, Vortkamp M (2004) Demography of Antarctic krill in the Lazarev Sea (Subarea 48.6) and the Elephant Island area (Subarea 48.1) in 2004. SC-CAMLR WG-EMM-04/23Google Scholar
  36. Smetacek V, Nicol S (2005) Polar ocean ecosystem in a changing world. Nature 437:362–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Spiridonov VA (1995) Spatial and temporal variability in reproductive timing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Polar Biol 15:161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taki K, Hayashi T, Naganobu M (2005) Characteristics of seasonal variation in diurnal vertical migration and aggregation of Antarctic krill (Euphauia superba) in the Scotia Sea, using Japanese fishery data. CCAMLR Sci 12:163–172Google Scholar
  39. Thomas PG, Ikeda T (1987) Sexual regression, shrinkage, re-maturation and growth of spent female Euphausia superba in the laboratory. Mar Biol 95:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tréguer P, Jacques G (1992) Dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton, and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and silicon in the Antarctic Ocean. Polar Biol 12:149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • So Kawaguchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Toshihiro Yoshida
    • 2
  • Luke Finley
    • 3
  • Paul Cramp
    • 1
  • Stephen Nicol
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Government Antarctic DivisionDepartment of Environment and HeritageKingstonAustralia
  2. 2.IASOSUniversity of TasmaniaTASAustralia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations