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Polar Biology

, 30:625 | Cite as

The two giant sister species of the Southern Ocean, Dissostichus eleginoides and Dissostichus mawsoni, differ in karyotype and chromosomal pattern of ribosomal RNA genes

  • L. Ghigliotti
  • F. Mazzei
  • C. Ozouf-Costaz
  • C. Bonillo
  • R. Williams
  • C.-H. C. Cheng
  • E. Pisano
Original Paper

Abstract

The two giant notothenioid species, the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides and the Antarctic toothfish D. mawsoni, are important components of the Antarctic ichthyofauna and heavily exploited commercially. They have similar appearance and size, both are piscivorous and bentho-pelagic, but differ in their geographic distribution and absence/presence of the antifreeze trait. We karyotyped these two sister species by analyzing specimens collected from multiple Antarctic and sub-Antarctic sites. Both species have a diploid number of 48, but differ in karyotypic formula, (2m + 2sm + 44a) for D. eleginoides and (2m + 4sm + 42a) for D. mawsoni, due to an extra pair of submetacentric chromosomes in the latter. Chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization with rDNA probes revealed unexpected species-specific organization of rRNA genes; D. mawsoni possesses two rDNA loci (versus one locus in D. eleginoides), with the second locus mapping to its additional submetacentric chromosome. The additional rRNA genes in D. mawsoni may be a cold-adaptive compensatory mechanism for growth and development of this large species in freezing seawater.

Keywords

Antarctica Chromosomes Dissostichus Ribosomal genes Toothfish 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA), the Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle of Paris and IPEV (ICOTA Project), the US NSF Office of Polar Programs (OPP 0231006 to C.-H.C.C.) provided financial support. The Australian Antarctic Division supported the participation of E. Pisano in the 1993 cruise on board the RSV Aurora Australis (Anare project N.728). We are grateful to the crews of R/V Nathaniel Palmer and R/V Tangaroa for logistic support during the ICEFISH 2004 Cruise (http://www.icefish.neu.edu) and Western Ross Sea Voyage 2004. The study is in the framework of the SCAR Scientific Research Program EBA (Evolution and Biodiversity in Antarctica).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Ghigliotti
    • 1
  • F. Mazzei
    • 1
  • C. Ozouf-Costaz
    • 2
  • C. Bonillo
    • 2
  • R. Williams
    • 3
  • C.-H. C. Cheng
    • 4
  • E. Pisano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of GenovaGenovaItaly
  2. 2.Département Systématique et EvolutionCNRS UMR 7138, Museum National d’Histoire NaturelleParisFrance
  3. 3.Antarctic DivisionKingstonAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Animal BiologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

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