Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 311–317 | Cite as

A method for reconstructing three-dimensional dive profiles of marine mammals using geomagnetic intensity data: results from two lactating Weddell seals

  • Yoko Mitani
  • Katsufumi Sato
  • Shinichiro Ito
  • Michael F. Cameron
  • Donald B. Siniff
  • Yasuhiko Naito
Original Paper

Abstract

The under-ice behavior of two free-ranging female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) was studied using geomagnetic, acceleration and velocity sensors at Big Razorback Island in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The seals' body angle and posture were calculated from the acceleration data and the heading from the geomagnetic intensity data. Together with swim speed, the seals' three-dimensional underwater dive path, heading and even posture were reconstructed for each dive. Each instrument was deployed for 2 days, during which time these females made multiple, deep (≥50 m) dives, with average maximum depths of 236±27 m (n=4) and 244±121 m (n=40). Each seal appeared to choose a particular heading on which to descend. These headings were significantly different between seals and bouts (Watson's U 2 test, P<0.05). These new instruments and methodologies are shown to provide valuable information on the fine-scale and complex movements of diving animals.

Keywords

Swimming Speed Dead Reckoning Weddell Seal Dive Duration Body Angle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank C. Counard, S. Dahle, D. MacNulty, K. Krysl, H. Reider, E. Morton, and G. Wong for their assistance with the fieldwork. We are also grateful to H. Tanaka, S. Minamikawa, and C. Tsushima for the propeller calibration experiments. The experimental protocol was previously approved by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Marine Mammal Protection Agency. The fieldwork was conducted at McMurdo Station of the United States Antarctic Program. This work was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the promotion of Science (11691197 and 14405027), the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society (14-368M), and the National Science Foundation (OPP-9420818).

References

  1. Burns JM, Trumble SJ, Castellini MA, Testa JW (1998) The diet of Weddell seals in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica as determined from scat collections and stable isotope analysis. Polar Biol 19:272–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davis RW, Fuiman LA, Williams TM, Collier SO, Hagey WP, Kanatous SB, Kohin S, Horning M (1999) Hunting behavior of a marine mammal beneath the Antarctic fast ice. Science 283:993–996CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis RW, Fuiman LA, Williams TM, Le Boeuf BJ (2001) Three-dimensional movements and swimming activity of a northern elephant seal. Comp Biochem Physiol A 129:759–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fuiman LA, Davis RW, Williams TM (2002) Behavior of midwater fishes under the Antarctic ice: observation by a predator. Mar Biol 140:815–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Green K, Burton HR (1987) Seasonal and geographical variation in the food of Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, in Antarctica. Aust Wildl Res 14:475–489Google Scholar
  6. Harcourt RG, Hindell MA, Bell DG, Waas JR (2000) Three-dimensional dive profiles of free-ranging Weddell seals. Polar Biol 23:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hindell MA, Harcourt R, Waas JR, Thompson D (2002) Fine-scale three-dimensional spatial use by diving, lactating female Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 242:275–284Google Scholar
  8. IAGA, Division V, Working Group 8 (2000) International geomagnetic reference field—2000. Phys Earth Planet Inter 120:39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kooyman GL (1968) An analysis of some behavioral and physiological characteristics related to diving in the Weddell seal. Antarct Res Ser 11:227–261Google Scholar
  10. Kooyman GL, Gentry RL, Urquhart DL (1976) Northern fur seal diving behavior: a new approach to its study. Science 193:411–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kusagaya H, Sato K (2001) A safe and practical inhalation anaesthesia for Weddell seals. Polar Biol 24:549–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Le Boeuf BJ, Naito Y, Huntley AC, Asaga T (1989) Prolonged, continuous, deep diving by northern elephant seals. Can J Zool 67:2514–2519Google Scholar
  13. Naito Y, Le Boeuf BJ, Asaga T, Huntley AC (1989) Long-term diving records of an adult female northern elephant seal. Antarct Rec 33:1–9Google Scholar
  14. Sato K, Mitani Y, Cameron MF, Siniff DB, Watanabe Y, Naito Y (2002) Deep foraging dives in relation to the energy depletion of Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) mothers during lactation. Polar Biol 25:696–702Google Scholar
  15. Sato K, Mitani Y, Cameron MF, Siniff DB, Naito Y (2003) Factors affecting stroking patterns and body angle in diving Weddell seals under natural condition. J Exp Biol (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Simpkins MA, Kelly BP, Wartzok D (2001) Three-dimensional analysis of search behaviour by ringed seals. Anim Behav 62:67–72Google Scholar
  17. Stirling I (1966) A technique for handling live seals. J Mammal 47:543–544Google Scholar
  18. Tanaka H, Takagi Y, Naito Y (2001) Swimming speeds and buoyancy compensation of migrating adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta revealed by speed/depth/acceleration data logger. J Exp Biol 204:3895–3904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wilson RP, Wilson MP (1988) Dead reckoning: a new technique for determining penguin movements at sea. Meeresforschung 32:155–158Google Scholar
  20. Wilson RP, Wilson MP, Link R, Mempel H, Adams NJ (1991) Determination of movements of African penguins Spheniscus demersus using a compass system: dead reckoning may be an alternative to telemetry. J Exp Biol 157:557–564Google Scholar
  21. Yoda K, Naito Y, Sato K, Takahashi A, Nishikawa J, Ropert-coudert Y, Kurita M, Le Maho Y (2001) A new technique for monitoring the behaviour of free-ranging Adélie penguins. J Exp Biol 204:685–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Zar JH (1984) Circular distributions: hypothesis testing. Biological analysis, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp 440–469Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoko Mitani
    • 1
  • Katsufumi Sato
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shinichiro Ito
    • 3
  • Michael F. Cameron
    • 4
    • 5
  • Donald B. Siniff
    • 4
  • Yasuhiko Naito
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Polar ScienceThe Graduate University for Advanced StudiesTokyoJapan
  2. 2.National Institute of Polar ResearchTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Defense AcademyYokosukaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and BehaviorUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  5. 5.National Marine Mammal Laboratory/NOAASeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations