Skip to main content


Log in

Identification of mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and susceptibility-related metabolites in the apoplast of mung bean leaves

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Plant Cell Reports Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Key message

The investigation of MYMIV-infected mung bean leaf apoplast revealed viral genome presence, increased EVs secretion, and altered stress-related metabolite composition, providing comprehensive insights into plant–virus interactions.


The apoplast, an extracellular space around plant cells, plays a vital role in plant–microbe interactions, influencing signaling, defense, and nutrient transport. While the involvement of apoplast and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in RNA virus infection is documented, the role of the apoplast in plant DNA viruses remains unclear. This study explores the apoplast's role in mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection. Our findings demonstrate the presence of MYMIV genomic components in apoplastic fluid, suggesting potential begomovirus cell-to-cell movement via the apoplast. Moreover, MYMIV infection induces increased EVs secretion into the apoplast. NMR-based metabolomics reveals altered metabolic profiles in both apoplast and symplast in response to MYMIV infection, highlighting key metabolites associated with stress and defense mechanisms. The data show an elevation of α- and β-glucose in both apoplast and symplast, suggesting a shift in glucose utilization. Interestingly, this increase in glucose does not contribute to the synthesis of phenolic compounds, potentially influencing the susceptibility of mung bean to MYMIV. Fructose levels increase in the symplast, while apoplastic sucrose levels rise significantly. Symplastic aspartate levels increase, while proline exhibits elevated concentration in the apoplast and reduced concentration in the cytosol, suggesting a role in triggering a hypersensitive response. These findings underscore the critical role of the apoplast in begomovirus infection, providing insights for targeted viral disease management strategies.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

Availability of data and materials

Relevant data are included in this paper and its associated Supplementary Information (SI).


Download references


We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Gerhard Prinsloo from the Department of Agriculture and Animal Health at the University of South Africa (UNISA) in Pretoria, South Africa, for his valuable guidance and his insightful NMR-based metabolomics seminars. We gratefully acknowledge the Central Instruments Facility (CIF) of the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati for providing access to NMR facility.


This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, Grant Number BT/PR13560/COE/34/44/2015 and Central Instruments Facility, Dept. of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati. Author LS has received research support.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



KVD and LS designed the experiments and supervised the research. KVD performed the experiments and analyzed the data. KVD wrote the manuscript with contributions from other authors.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lingaraj Sahoo.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 6554 KB)

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dhobale, K.V., Sahoo, L. Identification of mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and susceptibility-related metabolites in the apoplast of mung bean leaves. Plant Cell Rep 43, 173 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: