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Identification of mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and susceptibility-related metabolites in the apoplast of mung bean leaves

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Abstract

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The investigation of MYMIV-infected mung bean leaf apoplast revealed viral genome presence, increased EVs secretion, and altered stress-related metabolite composition, providing comprehensive insights into plant–virus interactions.

Abstract

The apoplast, an extracellular space around plant cells, plays a vital role in plant–microbe interactions, influencing signaling, defense, and nutrient transport. While the involvement of apoplast and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in RNA virus infection is documented, the role of the apoplast in plant DNA viruses remains unclear. This study explores the apoplast's role in mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection. Our findings demonstrate the presence of MYMIV genomic components in apoplastic fluid, suggesting potential begomovirus cell-to-cell movement via the apoplast. Moreover, MYMIV infection induces increased EVs secretion into the apoplast. NMR-based metabolomics reveals altered metabolic profiles in both apoplast and symplast in response to MYMIV infection, highlighting key metabolites associated with stress and defense mechanisms. The data show an elevation of α- and β-glucose in both apoplast and symplast, suggesting a shift in glucose utilization. Interestingly, this increase in glucose does not contribute to the synthesis of phenolic compounds, potentially influencing the susceptibility of mung bean to MYMIV. Fructose levels increase in the symplast, while apoplastic sucrose levels rise significantly. Symplastic aspartate levels increase, while proline exhibits elevated concentration in the apoplast and reduced concentration in the cytosol, suggesting a role in triggering a hypersensitive response. These findings underscore the critical role of the apoplast in begomovirus infection, providing insights for targeted viral disease management strategies.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Gerhard Prinsloo from the Department of Agriculture and Animal Health at the University of South Africa (UNISA) in Pretoria, South Africa, for his valuable guidance and his insightful NMR-based metabolomics seminars. We gratefully acknowledge the Central Instruments Facility (CIF) of the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati for providing access to NMR facility.

Funding

This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, Grant Number BT/PR13560/COE/34/44/2015 and Central Instruments Facility, Dept. of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati. Author LS has received research support.

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KVD and LS designed the experiments and supervised the research. KVD performed the experiments and analyzed the data. KVD wrote the manuscript with contributions from other authors.

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Correspondence to Lingaraj Sahoo.

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Dhobale, K.V., Sahoo, L. Identification of mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and susceptibility-related metabolites in the apoplast of mung bean leaves. Plant Cell Rep 43, 173 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-024-03247-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-024-03247-2

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