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5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress

Abstract

Key message

5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) modulates various defense systems in plants and confers abiotic stress tolerance.

Abstract

Enhancement of crop production is a challenge due to numerous abiotic stresses such as, salinity, drought, temperature, heavy metals, and UV. Plants often face one or more abiotic stresses in their life cycle because of the challenging growing environment which results in reduction of growth and yield. Diverse studies have been conducted to discern suitable mitigation strategies to enhance crop production by minimizing abiotic stress. Exogenous application of different plant growth regulators is a well-renowned approach to ameliorate adverse effects of abiotic stresses on crop plants. Among the numerous plant growth regulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a novel plant growth regulator, also well-known to alleviate the injurious effects of abiotic stresses in plants. ALA enhances abiotic stress tolerance as well as growth and yield by regulating photosynthetic and antioxidant machineries and nutrient uptake in plants. However, the regulatory roles of ALA in plants under different stresses have not been studied and assembled systematically. Also, ALA-mediated abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms have not been fully elucidated yet. Therefore, this review discusses the role of ALA in crop growth enhancement as well as its ameliorative role in abiotic stress mitigation and also discusses the ALA-mediated abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms and its limitation and future promises for sustainable crop production.

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Abbreviations

ABA:

Abscisic acid

ALA:

5-Aminolevulinic acid

AO:

Ascorbate oxidase

APX:

Ascorbate peroxidase

AsA:

Ascorbate

AsA-GSH:

Ascorbate–Glutathione

PGRs:

Plant growth regulators

CAT:

Catalase

DHAR:

Dehydroascorbate reductase

EL:

Electrolyte leakage

GDH:

Glutamate dehydrogenase

GPX:

Glutathione peroxidase

GR:

Glutathione reductase

GS:

Glutamine synthetase

HEMA1:

Hydroxyethyl methacrylate

HM:

Heavy metal

MDA:

Malondialdehyde

MDHAR:

Mono-dehydroascorbate reductase

NR:

Nitrate reductase

PAR:

Photoynthetically active radiation

PEG:

Polyethylene glycol

POD:

Peroxidase

POR:

Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase

P5CS:

Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

ProDH:

Proline dehydrogenase

RMP:

Relative membrane permeability

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization, MSR and MH writing—original draft preparation, MSR, SI, MMK, JC, MAM, PS, MTA, and AHKR writing—review and editing, WY, YM and MH, visualization, MSR and MH. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mirza Hasanuzzaman.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Communicated by Aryadeep Roychoudhury.

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Rhaman, M.S., Imran, S., Karim, M.M. et al. 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Plant Cell Rep 40, 1451–1469 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02690-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02690-9

Keywords

  • Abiotic stress
  • Plant growth regulator
  • Stress signaling
  • Stress tolerance