We obtained a complete mutant line of Petunia having mutations in both F3H genes via Cas9-ribonucleoproteins delivery, which exhibited a pale purplish pink flower color.
The CRISPR-Cas system is now revolutionizing agriculture by allowing researchers to generate various desired mutations in plants at will. In particular, DNA-free genome editing via Cas9-ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) delivery has many advantages in plants; it does not require codon optimization or specific promoters for expression in plant cells; furthermore, it can bypass GMO regulations in some countries. Here, we have performed site-specific mutagenesis in Petunia to engineer flower color modifications. We determined that the commercial Petunia cultivar ‘Madness Midnight’ has two F3H coding genes and designed one guide RNA that targets both F3H genes at once. Among 67 T0 plants regenerated from Cas9-RNP transfected protoplasts, we obtained seven mutant lines that contain mutations in either F3HA or F3HB gene and one complete mutant line having mutations in both F3H genes without any selectable markers. It is noteworthy that only the f3ha f3hb exhibited a clearly modified, pale purplish pink flower color (RHS 69D), whereas the others, including the single copy gene knock-out plants, displayed purple violet (RHS 93A) flowers similar to the wild-type Petunia. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrated a precedent of ornamental crop engineering by DNA-free CRISPR method for the first time, which will greatly accelerate a transition from a laboratory to a farmer’s field.
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This work was supported by grants from the Next Generation BioGreen 21 Program (No. PJ01319301 to S.B. and No. PJ01319303 to G.J.L). J.Y. was also supported by the Stadelmann-Lee Scholarship Fund, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Conflict of interest
G.J.L., T.L., and S.S. are co-inventors on a patent application related to the methods described in this manuscript.
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Communicated by Neal Stewart.
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Yu, J., Tu, L., Subburaj, S. et al. Simultaneous targeting of duplicated genes in Petunia protoplasts for flower color modification via CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins. Plant Cell Rep 40, 1037–1045 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-020-02593-1
- CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins
- DNA-free gene editing
- One step generation
- Protoplast regeneration
- Petunia × hybrida