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Determination of histone epigenetic marks in Arabidopsis and tomato genes in the early response to Botrytis cinerea

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Determination of histone epigenetic marks in Arabidopsis and tomato genes in the early response to Botrytis cinerea may contribute to find biomarkers of the early detection of this devastating pathogen.

Abstract

Recent studies have linked epigenetic modifications with plant responses to biotic stresses. Information about specific histone marks upon necrotrophic pathogens is scarce. Here we wondered whether the altered responsiveness of specific genes in plants infected with Botrytis cinerea was associated with changes in chromatin structure. We performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that obtained differential epigenetic signature of activating marks H3K4me3, H3K9ac, and the repressor one H3K27me3 on both the promoter and the body of the highly induced PR1 in Arabidopsis plants infected with B. cinerea at 24 and 33 h after inoculation. We also determined the histone marks’ profile in two differentially expressed genes in response to B. cinerea, as well as to oxidative stress, given its relevance in this infection. These are both the induced CYP71A13, which encodes a cytochrome P450 involved in camalexin synthesis, and is essential against this necrotroph and the repressed EXL7 (Exordium-like 1). We also adapted our protocol in tomato plants infected with B. cinerea. At 24 hpi, H3K4me3 level increased on the promoter and at different locations of the body of the genes induced upon B. cinerea, including DES (divinyl ethyl synthase), LoxD (lipoxygenase D), DOX1 (α-dioxygenase 1), PR2 (pathogenesis-related protein2), WRKY53 and WRKY33. The histone modifications determined herein will allow future studies on epigenetic marks and their transgenerational inheritance in plants infected with B. cinerea. In addition, the analyzed genes are potential biomarkers of B. cinerea infection that could contribute to its early detection in tomato and related crops.

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Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (AGL2010-22300-C03-01 and AGL2013-49023-C03-01), co-funded by European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), and by Generalitat Valenciana Grupos de Excelencia PROMETEO/2012/066. O. Crespo-Salvador was the recipient of a research contract from grant PROMETEO/2012/066 and from grant AGL2013-49023-C03-01. J. López-Cruz was the recipient of a research contract from grant AGL2013-49023-C03-01. We thank Dr. Paul Tudzynski for providing the B05.10 strain and the SCIE (University of Valencia) for technical support. We also thank Helen Warburton for proofreading the English.

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Correspondence to Carmen González-Bosch.

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Communicated by Tarek Hewezi.

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Crespo-Salvador, Ó., Escamilla-Aguilar, M., López-Cruz, J. et al. Determination of histone epigenetic marks in Arabidopsis and tomato genes in the early response to Botrytis cinerea . Plant Cell Rep 37, 153–166 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-017-2218-9

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