Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 1225–1236

Water-Wisteria as an ideal plant to study heterophylly in higher aquatic plants

  • Gaojie Li
  • Shiqi Hu
  • Jingjing Yang
  • Elizabeth A. Schultz
  • Kurtis Clarke
  • Hongwei Hou
Original Article

Abstract

Key message

The semi-aquatic plant Water-Wisteria is suggested as a new model to study heterophylly due to its many advantages and typical leaf phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors and phytohormones.

Abstract

Water-Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis (Acanthaceae), is a fast growing semi-aquatic plant that exhibits a variety of leaf shapes, from simple leaves to highly branched compound leaves, depending on the environment. The phenomenon by which leaves change their morphology in response to environmental conditions is called heterophylly. In order to investigate the characteristics of heterophylly, we assessed the morphology and anatomy of Hygrophila difformis in different conditions. Subsequently, we verified that phytohormones and environmental factors can induce heterophylly and found that Hygrophila difformis is easily propagated vegetatively through either leaf cuttings or callus induction, and the callus can be easily transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These results suggested that Hygrophila difformis is a good model plant to study heterophylly in higher aquatic plants.

Keywords

Hygrophila difformis Aquatic plant Heterophylly Leaf Model plant Phytohormone 

Supplementary material

299_2017_2148_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaojie Li
    • 1
  • Shiqi Hu
    • 1
  • Jingjing Yang
    • 1
  • Elizabeth A. Schultz
    • 2
  • Kurtis Clarke
    • 2
  • Hongwei Hou
    • 1
  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

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