Longer uncommon polyamines have a stronger defense gene-induction activity and a higher suppressing activity of Cucumber mosaic virus multiplication compared to that of spermine in Arabidopsis thaliana
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Our work suggests that long chain polyamines and their derivatives are potential chemicals to control viral pathogens for crop production.
Previously we showed that two tetraamines, spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm), induce the expression of a subset of defense-related genes and repress proliferation of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Arabidopsis. Here we tested whether the longer uncommon polyamines (LUPAs) such as caldopentamine, caldohexamine, homocaldopentamine and homocaldohexamine have such the activity. LUPAs had higher gene induction activity than Spm and T-Spm. Interestingly the genes induced by LUPAs could be classified into two groups: the one group was most responsive to caldohexamine while the other one was most responsive to homocaldopentamine. In both the cases, the inducing activity was dose-dependent. LUPAs caused local cell death and repressed CMV multiplication more efficiently as compared to Spm. LUPAs inhibited the viral multiplication of not only avirulent CMV but also of virulent CMV in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, LUPAs can activate the systemic acquired resistance against CMV more efficiently as compared to Spm. When Arabidopsis leaves were incubated with LUPAs, the putative polyamine oxidase (PAO)-mediated catabolites were detected even though the conversion rate was very low. In addition, we found that LUPAs induced the expression of three NADPH oxidase genes (rbohC, rbohE and rbohH) among ten isoforms. Taken together, we propose that LUPAs activate two alternative reactive oxygen species evoked pathways, a PAO-mediated one and an NADPH-oxidase-mediated one, which lead to induce defense-related genes and restrict CMV multiplication.
KeywordsArabidopsis thaliana Cucumber mosaic virus Longer uncommon polyamines Signaling activity Spermine
This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aids from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) to TK (21380063), and by the grant from The Saito Gratitude Foundation (to GHMS) and by the research funding programme “LOEWE—Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz” of Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and the Arts (to TB). GHMS is a recipient of MEXT scholarship.
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