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Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

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Abstract

Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, α-acids and β-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants.

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Abbreviations

CaMV:

Cauliflower mosaic virus

ESI:

Electrospray ionization

HPLC:

High-performance liquid chromatography

IAA:

Indole-3-acetic acid

LC–MS:

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

LC–ESI:

Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization

MS:

Murashige and Skoog medium

MSn:

Tandem mass spectrometry

nptII:

Neomycin phosphotransferase gene

PAP1:

Production of anthocyanin pigment 1

PDA:

Photodiode array detection

TDZ:

1-Phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea

WT:

Wild type

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Acknowledgments

The excellent technical assistance of Ute Born, Kathatrina Alheit and Carolin Aldinger is gratefully acknowledged, as well as the support of the Ministry of Nutrition and Agriculture of the State of Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart, Germany), Hop Growers Cooperative (Tettnang, Germany) and the Czech Science Foundation (project GACR 521/08/0740). Dr. Mohamed A. Farag thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for supporting the research at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry. The scholarship from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and partial support from the University of Costa Rica are gratefully acknowledged by A. Gatica.

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Correspondence to G. Weber.

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Communicated by F. Sato.

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Gatica-Arias, A., Farag, M.A., Stanke, M. et al. Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.. Plant Cell Rep 31, 111–119 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-011-1144-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-011-1144-5

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