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Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 695–706 | Cite as

Molecular biology of capsaicinoid biosynthesis in chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)

  • Cesar Aza-González
  • Hector G. Núñez-Palenius
  • Neftalí Ochoa-AlejoEmail author
Review

Abstract

Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate unique hot compounds known as capsaicinoids in placental tissues. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has been established, but the enzymes and genes participating in this process have not been extensively studied or characterized. Capsaicinoids are synthesized through the convergence of two biosynthetic pathways: the phenylpropanoid and the branched-chain fatty acid pathways, which provide the precursors phenylalanine, and valine or leucine, respectively. Capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation is a genetically determined trait in chili pepper fruits as different cultivars or genotypes exhibit differences in pungency; furthermore, this characteristic is also developmentally and environmentally regulated. The establishment of cDNA libraries and comparative gene expression studies in pungent and non-pungent chili pepper fruits has identified candidate genes possibly involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Genetic and molecular approaches have also contributed to the knowledge of this biosynthetic pathway; however, more studies are necessary for a better understanding of the regulatory process that accounts for different accumulation levels of capsaicinoids in chili pepper fruits.

Keywords

Capsaicinoid biosynthesis Capsicum Chili pepper 

Abbreviations

DPA

Days post-anthesis

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

pAMT

Putative aminotransferase

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Conacyt (Mexico), project 55264. Aza-González C. is a Conacyt (Mexico) graduate fellowship recipient.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesar Aza-González
    • 1
  • Hector G. Núñez-Palenius
    • 1
  • Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Ingeniería Genética de PlantasCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav)-Unidad IrapuatoIrapuatoMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Biotecnología y BioquímicaCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav)-Unidad IrapuatoIrapuatoMexico

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