Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 695–706 | Cite as

Molecular biology of capsaicinoid biosynthesis in chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)

  • Cesar Aza-González
  • Hector G. Núñez-Palenius
  • Neftalí Ochoa-AlejoEmail author


Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate unique hot compounds known as capsaicinoids in placental tissues. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has been established, but the enzymes and genes participating in this process have not been extensively studied or characterized. Capsaicinoids are synthesized through the convergence of two biosynthetic pathways: the phenylpropanoid and the branched-chain fatty acid pathways, which provide the precursors phenylalanine, and valine or leucine, respectively. Capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation is a genetically determined trait in chili pepper fruits as different cultivars or genotypes exhibit differences in pungency; furthermore, this characteristic is also developmentally and environmentally regulated. The establishment of cDNA libraries and comparative gene expression studies in pungent and non-pungent chili pepper fruits has identified candidate genes possibly involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Genetic and molecular approaches have also contributed to the knowledge of this biosynthetic pathway; however, more studies are necessary for a better understanding of the regulatory process that accounts for different accumulation levels of capsaicinoids in chili pepper fruits.


Capsaicinoid biosynthesis Capsicum Chili pepper 



Days post-anthesis


Reactive oxygen species


Putative aminotransferase



This work was supported by Conacyt (Mexico), project 55264. Aza-González C. is a Conacyt (Mexico) graduate fellowship recipient.


  1. Abraham-Juarez MD, Rocha-Granados MD, López MG, Rivera-Bustamante RF, Ochoa-Alejo N (2008) Virus-induced silencing of Comt, pAmt and Kas genes results in a reduction of capsaicinoid accumulation in chili pepper fruits. Planta 227:681–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aluru MR, Mazourek M, Landry LG, Curry J, Jahn M, O’Connell MA (2003) Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit. J Exp Bot 54:1655–1664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews J (1995) Peppers: the domesticated capsicums, New edition. University of Texas Press, AustinGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben-Chaim A, Borovsky Y, Falise M, Mazourek M, Kang BC, Paran I, Jahn M (2006) QTL analysis for capsaicinoid content in Capsicum. Theor Appl Genet 113:1481–1490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett DJ, Kirby GW (1968) Constitution and biosynthesis of capsaicin. J Chem Soc C 4:442–446Google Scholar
  6. Blum E, Liu K, Mazourek M, Yoo EY, Jahn M, Paran I (2002) Molecular mapping of the C locus for presence of pungency in Capsicum. Genome 45:702–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum E, Mazourek M, O’Connell M, Curry J, Thorup T, Liu KD, Jahn M, Paran I (2003) Molecular mapping of capsaicinoid biosynthesis genes and quantitative trait loci analysis for capsaicinoid content in Capsicum. Theor Appl Genet 108:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borovsky Y, Oren-Shamir M, Ovadia R, De Jong W, Paran I (2004) The A locus that controls anthocyanin accumulation in pepper encodes a MYB transcription factor homologous to Anthocyanin2 of Petunia. Theor Appl Genet 109:23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bosland PW (1996) Capsicums: innovative uses of an ancient crop. In: Janick J (ed) Progress in new crops. ASHS Press, Arlington, pp 479–487Google Scholar
  10. Bosland PW, Baral JB (2007) ‘Bhut Jolokia’—the world’s hottest known chile pepper is a putative naturally occurring interspecific hybrid. Hortscience 42:222–224Google Scholar
  11. Choi SH, Suh BS, Kozukue E, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M (2006) Analysis of the contents of pungent compounds in fresh Korean red peppers and in pepper-containing foods. J Agric Food Chem 54:9024–9031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cordell GA, Araujo OE (1993) Capsaicin: identification, nomenclature, and pharmacotherapy. Ann Pharmacother 27:330–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Curry J, Aluru M, Mendoza M, Nevarez J, Melendrez M, O’Connell MA (1999) Transcripts for possible capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes are differentially accumulated in pungent and non-pungent Capsicum spp. Plant Sci 148:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deal CL, Schnitzer TJ, Lipstein E, Seibold JR, Stevens RM, Levy MD, Albert D, Renold F (1991) Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin—a double-blind trial. Clin Ther 13:383–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Deshpande RB (1935) Studies in Indian chillies: 4. Inheritance of pungency in Capsicum annuum L. Indian J Agric Sci 5:513–516Google Scholar
  16. Espley RV, Hellens RP, Putterill J, Stevenson DE, Kutty-Amma S, Allan AC (2007) Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10. Plant J 49:414–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Estabrook EM, Senguptagopalan C (1991) Differential expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase during soybean nodule development. Plant Cell 3:299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Estrada B, Pomar F, Diaz J, Merino F, Bernal MA (1999) Pungency level in fruits of the Padron pepper with different water supply. Sci Hortic 81:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fahrendorf T, Dixon RA (1993) Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L).18. Molecular-cloning and expression of the elicitor-inducible cinnamate 4-hydroxylase cytochrome-P450. Arch Biochem Biophys 305:509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fujiwake H, Suzuki T, Iwai K (1982a) Intracellular distribution of enzymes and intermediates involved in biosynthesis of capsaicin and its analogues in Capsicum fruits. Agric Biol Chem 46:2685–2689Google Scholar
  21. Fujiwake H, Suzuki T, Iwai K (1982b) Capsaicinoid formation in the protoplast from placenta of Capsicum fruits. Agric Biol Chem 46:2591–2592Google Scholar
  22. Fung T, Jeffery W, Beveridge AD (1982) The identification of capsaicinoids in tear-gas spray. J Forensic Sci 27:812–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gady AL, Hermans FW, Van de Wal MH, van Loo EN, Visser RG, Bachem CW (2009) Implementation of two high through-put techniques in a novel application: detecting point mutations in large EMS mutated plant populations. Plant Methods 5:13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gamse R, Lackner D, Gamse G, Leeman SE (1981) Effect of capsaicin pretreatment on capsaicin-evoked release of immunoreactive somatostatin and substance-P from primary sensory neurons. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 316:38–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gasson MJ, Kitamura Y, McLauchlan WR, Narband A, Parr AJ, Parsons ELH, Payne J, Rhodes MJC, Walton NJ (1998) Metabolism of ferulic acid to vanillin: a bacterial gene of the enoyl-SCoA hydratase/isomerase superfamily encodes an enzyme for the hydration and cleavage of hydroxycinnamic acid SCoA thioester. J Biol Chem 273:4163–4170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Govindarajan VS, Sathyanarayana MN (1991) Capsicum-production, technology, chemistry, and quality. V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 29:435–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gowri G, Bugos RC, Campbell WH, Maxwell CA, Dixon RA (1991) Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). 10. Molecular-cloning and expression of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme of lignin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 97:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harpster MH, Brummel DA, Dunsmuir P (2002) Supression of a ripening-related endo-1,4-β-glucanase in transgenic pepper fruit does not prevent depolymerization of cell wall polysaccharides during ripening. Plant Mol Biol 50:345–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harvell KP, Bosland PW (1997) The environment produces a significant effect on pungency of chiles. Hortscience 32:1292–1292Google Scholar
  30. Hautkappe M, Roizen MF, Toledano A, Roth S, Jeffries JA, Ostermeier AM (1998) Review of the effectiveness of capsaicin for painful cutaneous disorders and neural dysfunction. Clin J Pain 14:97–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoffmann L, Maury S, Martz F, Geoffroy P, Legrand M (2003) Purification, cloning, and properties of an acyltransferase controlling shikimate and quinate ester intermediates in phenylpropanoid metabolism. J Biol Chem 278:95–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Horffmann L, Besseau S, Geoffroy P, Ritzenthaler C, Meyer D, Lapierre C, Pollet B, Legrand M (2004) Silencing of hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase affects phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 16:1446–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Inoue N, Matsunaga Y, Sato H, Takahashi M (2007) Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:380–389Google Scholar
  34. Ito K, Nakazato T, Yamato K, Miyakawa Y, Yamada T, Hozumi N, Segawa K, Ikeda Y, Kizaki M (2004) Induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells by homovanillic acid derivative, capsaicin, through oxidative stress: implication of phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 residue by reactive oxygen species. Cancer Res 64:1071–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Iwai K, Suzuki T, Fujiwake H (1979) Formation and accumulation of pungent principle of hot pepper fruits, capsaicin and its analogs, in Capsicum annuun var. annuum cv. Karayatsubusa at different growth-stages after flowering. Agric Biol Chem 43:2493–2498Google Scholar
  36. Jurenitsch J, Kubelka W, Jentzsch K (1979) Identification of cultivated taxa of Capsicum taxonomy, anatomy and composition of pungent principle. Planta Med 35:174–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim JD, Kim JM, Pyo JO, Kim SY, Kim BS, Yu R, Han IS (1997) Capsaicin can alter the expression of tumor forming-related genes which might be followed by induction of apoptosis of a Korean stomach cancer cell line, SNU-1. Cancer Lett 120:235–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim M, Kim S, Kim S, Kim BD (2001) Isolation of cDNA clones differentially accumulated in the placenta of pungent pepper by suppression subtractive hybridization. Mol Cells 11:213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim JS, Park M, Lee DJ, Kim BD (2009) Characterization of putative capsaicin synthase promoter activity. Mol Cells 28:331–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kobata K, Todo T, Yazawa S, Iwai K, Watanabe T (1998) Novel capsaicinoid-like substances, capsiate and dihydrocapsiate, from the fruits of a nonpungent cultivar, CH-19 sweet, of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J Agric Food Chem 46:1695–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kobata K, Sutoh K, Todo T, Yazawa S, Iway K, Watanabe T (1999) Nordihydrocapsiate, a new capsinoid from the fruits of a non-pungent pepper, Capsicum annuum. J Nat Prod 62:335–336Google Scholar
  42. Kobata K, Kawaguchi M, Watanabe T (2002) Enzymatic synthesis of a capsinoid by the acylation of vanillyl alcohol with fatty acid derivatives catalyzed by lipases. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kothari SL, Joshi A, Kachhwaha S, Ochoa-Alejo N (2010) Chilli peppers—a review on tissue culture and transgenesis. Biotechnol Rev 28:35–48Google Scholar
  44. Kozukue N, Han JS, Kozukue E, Lee SJ, Kim JA, Lee KR, Levin CE, Friedman M (2005) Analysis of eight capsaicinoids in peppers and pepper-containing foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 53:9172–9181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lang YQ, Kisaka H, Sugiyama R, Nomura K, Morita A, Watanabe T, Tanaka Y, Yazawa S, Miwa T (2009) Functional loss of pAMT results in biosynthesis of capsinoids, capsaicinoid analogs, in Capsicum annuum cv. CH-19 Sweet. Plant J 59:953–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee YH, Kim HS, Kim JY, Jung M, Park YS, Lee JS, Choi SH, Her NH, Lee JH, Hyung NI, Lee CH, Yang SG, Harn CH (2004) A new selection method for pepper transformation: callus-mediated shoot formation. Plant Cell Rep 23:50–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee CJ, Yoo EY, Shin J, Lee J, Hwang HS, Kim BD (2005) Non-pungent Capsicum contains a deletion in the capsaicinoid synthetase gene, which allows early detection of pungency with SCAR markers. Mol Cells 19:262–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee YH, Jung M, Shin SH, Lee JH, Choi SH, Her NH, Lee JH, Ryu KH, Paek KY, Harn CH (2009) Transgenic peppers that are highly tolerant to a new CMV pathotype. Plant Cell Rep 28:223–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Leete E, Louden MCL (1968) Biosynthesis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum frutescens. J Am Chem Soc 90:6837–6841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu Y, Nair MG (2010) Capsaicinoids in the hottest pepper Bhut Jolokia and its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Nat Prod Commun 5:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Luo X-J, Peng J, Li Y-J (2010) Recent advances in the study of capsaicinoids and capsinoids. Eur J Pharmacol. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.09.074
  52. Macho A, Lucena C, Sancho R, Daddario N, Minassi A, Munoz E, Appendino G (2003) Non-pungent capsaicinoids from sweet pepper—synthesis and evaluation of the chemopreventive and anticancer potential. Eur J Nutr 42:2–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marabini S, Ciabatti PG, Polli G, Fusco BM, Geppetti P (1991) Beneficial-effects of intranasal applications of capsaicin in patients with vasomotor rhinitis. Eur Arch Oto Rhino Laryngol 248:191–194Google Scholar
  54. Mazourek M, Pujar A, Borovsky Y, Paran I, Mueller L, Jahn MM (2009) A dynamic interface for capsaicinoid systems biology. Plant Physiol 150:1806–1821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Merali Z, Mayer MJ, Parker ML, Michael AJ, Smith AC, Waldron KW (2007) Metabolic diversion of the phenylpropanoid pathway causes cell wall and morphological changes in transgenic tobacco stems. Planta 225:1165–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Minoia S, Petrozza A, D’Onofrio O, Piron F, Mosca G, Sozio G, Cellini F, Bendahmane A, Carriero F (2010) A new mutant genetic resource for tomato crop improvement by TILLING technology. BMC Res Notes 3:69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mori A, Lehmann S, O’Kelly J, Kumagai T, Desmond JC, Pervan M, McBride WH, Kizaki M, Koeffler HP (2006) Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 66:3222–3229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Murakami K, Ido M, Masuda M (2006) Fruit pungency of ‘Shishito’ pepper as affected by a dark interval in continuous fluorescent illumination with temperature alteration. J Soc High Tech Agric 18:284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Negulesco JA, Noel SA, Newman HA, Naber EC, Bhat HB, Witial DT (1987) Effects of pure capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations of turkey. Atherosclerosis 64:85–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nelson EK (1919) The constitution of capsaicin, the pungent principle of Capsicum. J Am Chem Soc 41:1115–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ochoa-Alejo N, Ramírez-Malagón R (2001) In vitro chili pepper biotechnology. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:701–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ohnuki K, Haramizu S, Oki K, Watanabe T, Yazawa S, Fushiki T (2001) Administration of capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, promotes energy metabolism and suppresses body fat accumulation in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:2735–2740Google Scholar
  63. Perkins B, Bushway R, Guthrie K, Fan T, Stewart B, Prince A, Williams M (2002) Determination of capsaicinoids in salsa by liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. J AOAC Int 85:82–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pyon B-J, Choi S, Lee Y, Kim T-W, Min J-K, Kim Y, Kim B-D, Kim J-H, Kim T-Y, Kim Y-M, Kwon Y-G (2008) Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin-like compound, inhibits angiogenesis and vascular permeability via direct inhibition of Src kinase activity. Cancer Res 68:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rains C, Bryson HM (1995) Topical capsaicin- a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis. Drug Aging 7:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reilly CA, Crouc DJ, Yost GS, Fatah AA (2001) Determination of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nonivamide in self-defense weapons by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 912:259–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Robbins W (2000) Clinical applications of capsaicinoids. Clin J Pain 16:S86–S89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rosa A, Deiana M, Casu V, Paccagnini S, Appendino G, Ballero M, Dessi MA (2002) Antioxidant activity of capsinoids. J Agric Food Chem 50:7396–7401Google Scholar
  69. Sánchez AM, Sánchez MG, Malagarie-Cazenave S, Olea N, Díaz-Laviada I (2006) Induction of apoptosis in prostate tumor PC-3 cells and inhibition of xenograft prostate tumor growth by the vanilloid capsaicin. Apoptosis 11:89–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sancho R, Lucena C, Macho A, Calzado MA, Blanco-Molina M, Minassi A, Appendino G, Munoz E (2002) Immunosuppressive activity of capsaicinoids: capsiate derived from sweet peppers inhibits NF-kappaB activation and is a potent anti-inflammatory compound in vivo. Eur J Immunol 32:1753–1763Google Scholar
  71. Sasahara I, Furuhata Y, Iwasaki Y, Inoue N, Sato H, Watanabe T, Takahashi M (2010) Assessment of the biological similarity of three capsaicin analogs (capsinoids) found in non-pungent chili pepper (CH-19 Sweet) fruits. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:274–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Singh S, Jarret R, Russo V, Majetich G, Shimkus J, Bushway R, Perkins B (2009) Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in Capsicum species. J Agric Food Chem 57:3452–3457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Snitker S, Fujishima Y, Shen H, Ott S, Pi-Sunyer X, Furuhata Y, Sato H, Takahasshi M (2009) Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am J Clin Nutr 89:45–50Google Scholar
  74. Spelt C, Quattrocchio F, Mol JNM, Koes R (2000) Anthocyanin1 of petunia encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein that directly activates transcription of structural anthocyanin genes. Plant Cell 12:1619–1631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spiller F, Alves MK, Vieira SM, Carvalho TA, Leite CE, Lunardelli A, Poloni JA, Cunha FQ, de Oliveira JR (2008) Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation. J Pharm Pharmacol 60:473–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stewart C, Kang BC, Liu K, Mazourek M, Moore SL, Yoo EY, Kim BD, Paran I, Jahn MM (2005) The Pun1 gene for pungency in pepper encodes a putative acyltransferase. Plant J 42:675–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stewart C, Mazourek M, Stellari GM, O’Connell M, Jahn M (2007) Genetic control of pungency in C. chinense via the Pun1 locus. J Exp Bot 58:979–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sukrasno N, Yeoman MM (1993) Phenylpropanoid metabolism during growth and development of Capsicum frutescens fruits. Phytochemistry 32:839–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Surh Y-J (2002) More than spice: capsaicin in hot chili peppers makes tumor cells commit suicide. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1263–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sutoh K, Kobata K, Yazawa S, Watanabe T (2006) Capsinoid is biosynthesized from phenylalanine and valine in a non-pungent pepper, Capsicum annuum L. cv. CH-19 Sweet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:1513–1516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Suzuki T, Fujiwake H, Iwai K (1980) Formation and metabolism of pungent principle of Capsicum fruits. 5. Intracellular-localization of capsaicin and its analogs, capsaicinoid, in Capsicum fruit. 1. Microscopic investigation of the structure of the placenta of Capsicum annuum var. annuum cv. Karayatsubusa. Plant Cell Physiol 21:839–853Google Scholar
  82. Suzuki T, Kawada T, Iwai K (1981) Formation and metabolism of pungent principle of Capsicum fruits. 9. Biosynthesis of acyl moieties of capsaicin and its analogs from valine and leucine in Capsicum fruits. Plant Cell Physiol 22:23–32Google Scholar
  83. Tanaka Y, Hosokawa M, Miwa T, Watanabe T, Yazawa S (2010) Newly mutated putative-aminotransferase in nonpungent pepper (Capsicum annuum) results in biosynthesis of capsinoids, capsaicinoid analogues. J Agric Food Chem 58:1761–1767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tewksbury JJ, Reagan KM, Machnicki NJ, Carlo TA, Haak DC, Penaloza ALC, Levey DJ (2008) Evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11808–11811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thiele R, Mueller-Seitz E, Petz M (2008) Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids. J Agric Food Chem 56:4219–4224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Xing FB, Cheng GX, Yi KK (2006) Study on the antimicrobial activities of the capsaicin microcapsules. J Appl Polym Sci 102:1318–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang KM, Pyo JO, Kim GY, Yu R, Han IS, Ju SA, Kim WH, Kim BS (2009) Capsaicin induces apoptosis by generating reactive oxygen species and disrupting mitochondrial transmembrane potential in human colon cancer cell lines. Cell Mol Biol Lett 14:497–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zewdie Y, Bosland PW (2000) Evaluation of genotype, environment, and genotype-by-environment interaction for capsaicinoids in Capsicum annuum L. Euphytica 111:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesar Aza-González
    • 1
  • Hector G. Núñez-Palenius
    • 1
  • Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Ingeniería Genética de PlantasCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav)-Unidad IrapuatoIrapuatoMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Biotecnología y BioquímicaCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav)-Unidad IrapuatoIrapuatoMexico

Personalised recommendations