Comparative analysis of cell cycle events in zygotic and somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum indicates strong resemblance of somatic embryos to recalcitrant seeds


Embryo development and germination of Cyclamen persicum have been comparatively characterized for zygotic and somatic embryos with regard to mitotic activity and morphology in order to identify developmental abnormalities in somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryo development proved to be highly synchronous with distinct periods of cell division, cell elongation and embryo maturation within a total period of 17 weeks of seed development. Somatic embryo development was accomplished within only 3 weeks, resulting in a mixture of morphologically highly variable embryos. No distinct developmental periods could be identified and no reduction of the mitotic activity was discovered for non-desiccated somatic embryos. Controlled desiccation of somatic embryos severely reduced their germination rate, demonstrating resemblance of somatic embryos to recalcitrant seeds, whereas zygotic Cyclamen seeds could be characterized as typically orthodox.

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2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid




Coefficient of variation


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Correspondence to A. Hohe.

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Communicated by R. Reski

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Schmidt, T., Ewald, A., Seyring, M. et al. Comparative analysis of cell cycle events in zygotic and somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum indicates strong resemblance of somatic embryos to recalcitrant seeds. Plant Cell Rep 25, 643 (2006).

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  • Flowcytometry
  • Mitotic activity
  • Orthodox seeds
  • Recalcitrant seeds
  • Somatic embryogenesis