Embryo development and germination of Cyclamen persicum have been comparatively characterized for zygotic and somatic embryos with regard to mitotic activity and morphology in order to identify developmental abnormalities in somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryo development proved to be highly synchronous with distinct periods of cell division, cell elongation and embryo maturation within a total period of 17 weeks of seed development. Somatic embryo development was accomplished within only 3 weeks, resulting in a mixture of morphologically highly variable embryos. No distinct developmental periods could be identified and no reduction of the mitotic activity was discovered for non-desiccated somatic embryos. Controlled desiccation of somatic embryos severely reduced their germination rate, demonstrating resemblance of somatic embryos to recalcitrant seeds, whereas zygotic Cyclamen seeds could be characterized as typically orthodox.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Coefficient of variation
Baud S, Boutin JP, Miquel M, LePiniec L, Rochat C (2002) An integrated overview of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype WS. Plant Physiol Biochem 40:151–160
Bewley JD, Black M (1994) Seeds, physiology of development and germination. DNA synthesis and cell division, Chap. 4.7. Plenum Press, New York, pp 188–191
Bornman CH, Dickens OSP, Van der Merwe CF, Coetzee J, Botha AM (2003) Somatic embryos of Picea abies behave like isolated zygotic embryos In-vitro but with greatly reduced physiological vigour. S Afr J Bot 69:176–185
Corbineau F, Neveur N, Côme D (1989) Seed germination and seedling development in Cyclamen persicum. Ann Bot 63:87–96
Finch-Savage WE, Bergervoet JHW, Bino RJ, Caly HA, Groot SPC (1998) Nuclear replication activity during seed development, dormancy breakage and germination in three tree species: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and cherry (Prunus avium L.). Ann Bot 81:519–526
Galbraith DW (1989) Analysis of higher plants by flow cytometry and cell sorting. Int Rev Cytol 16:165–228
Galbraith DW, Harkins KR, Maddox JM, Ayres NM, Sharma DP, Firoozabady E (1983) Rapid flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle in intact plant tissues. Science 220:1049–1051
Harding K (2004) Genetic integrity of cryopreserved plant cells: a review. Cryo Lett 25:3–22
Hohe A, Winkelmann T, Schwenkel HG (1999a) CO2 accumulation in bioreactor suspension cultures of Cyclamen persicum MILL. and its effect on cell growth and regeneration rate of somatic embryos. Plant Cell Rep 18:863–867
Hohe A, Winkelmann T, Schwenkel HG (1999b) The effect of oxygen partial pressure in bioreactors on cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation of somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 59:39–45
Pawlowski TA, Bergervoet JHW, Bino RJ, Groot SPC (2004) Cell cycle activity and beta-tubulin accumulation during dormancy breaking of Acer platanoides L. seeds. Biol Plant 48:211–218
Rensing SA, Lang D, Schumann E, Reski R, Hohe A (2005) EST sequencing from embryogenic Cyclamen persicum cell cultures identifies a high proportion of transcripts homologues to plant genes involved in somatic embryogenesis. J Plant Growth Regul 24:102–115
Roberts EH (1973) Predicting the storage life of seeds. Seed Sci Technol 1:499–514
Sacande M, Groot SPC, Hoekstra FA, DeCastro RD, Bino RJ (1997) Cell cycle events in developing neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds: are they related to intermediate storage behaviour? Seed Sci Res 7:161–168
Schwenkel HG, Winkelmann T (1998) Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from ovules of Cyclamen persicum MILL. Plant Tissue Cult Biotechnol 4:28–34
Seyring M, Hohe A (2005) Induction of desiccation tolerance in somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum MILL. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 80:65–69
Takamura T, Miyajima I (1996) Embryo development in crosses between diploid and tetraploid cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum MILL.). J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 65:113–120
Tetteroo FAA, Bino RJ, Bergervoet JHW, Hasenack B (1995) Effect of ABA and slow drying on DNA-replication in carrot (Daucus carota) embryoids. Physiol Plant 95:154–158
Wicart GA, Mouras A, Lutz A (1984) Histological study of organogenesis and embryogenesis in Cyclamen persicum Mill. tissue cultures: evidence for a single organogenetic pattern. Protoplasma 119:159–167
Winkelmann T, Hohe A, Schwenkel HG (1998a) Establishing embryogenic suspension cultures in Cyclamen persicum ‘Purple Flame’. Adv Hortic Sci 12:25–30
Winkelmann T, Sangwan RS, Schwenkel HG (1998b) Flow cytometric analyses in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus lines of Cyclamen persicum Mill.: relation between ploidy level and competence for somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Rep 17:400–404
Winkelmann T, Meyer L, Serek M (2004) Desiccation of somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum MILL. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 79(3):479-483
Communicated by R. Reski
About this article
Cite this article
Schmidt, T., Ewald, A., Seyring, M. et al. Comparative analysis of cell cycle events in zygotic and somatic embryos of Cyclamen persicum indicates strong resemblance of somatic embryos to recalcitrant seeds. Plant Cell Rep 25, 643 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-006-0130-9
- Mitotic activity
- Orthodox seeds
- Recalcitrant seeds
- Somatic embryogenesis