AtFPF1 (FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1) is a gene that promotes flowering in Arabidopsis. An expression vector containing AtFPF1 driven by a Ubi-1 promoter was constructed. The gene was introduced into rice callus by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and fertile plants were obtained. The presence of AtFPF1 in rice plants was confirmed by PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses, as well as by β-glucuronidase assay. The results showed that, as in Arabidopsis, AtFPF1 reduced flowering time in rice. Furthermore, introduction of AtFPF1 enhanced adventitious root formation but inhibited root growth in rice during the seedling stage. The results suggest that AtFPF1 promotes flowering time in both dicots and monocots, and plays a role in the initiation of adventitious roots in rice.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Christensen AH, Sharrock RA, Quail PH (1992) Maize polyubiquitin genes: structure, thermal perturbation of expression and transcript splicing, and promoter activity following transfer to protoplasts by electroporation. Plant Mol Biol 18:675–689
Chung YY, Kim SR, Finkel D, Yanofsky MF, An G (1994) Early flowering and redunced apical dominance result from ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene. Plant Mol Biol 26:657–665
Coen ES, Meyerowitz EM (1991) The war of the whorls: genetic interactions controlling flower development. Nature 353:31–37
Dellaporta SL, Wood J, Hicks JB (1983) A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1:19–21
Ge L, Liu JZ, Wong WS, Chong K, Hsiao WLW, Xu ZK, Li N (2000) Identification of a novel multiple environmental factor responsive 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, NT-ACS2, from tobacco. Plant Cell Environ 23:1169–1182
Ge L, Tan KH, Chong K, Xu ZH (2001) Advances on genetic control of rice floral development. Chin Sci Bull 46:705–712
Ge L, Chen H, Jiang JF, Zhao Y, Xu ML, Xu YY, Tan KH, Xu ZH, Chong K (2004) Overexpression of OsRAA1 causes pleiotropic phenotypes in transgenic rice plants including altered leaf, flower and root development and root response to gravity. Plant Physiol 135:1502–1513
Gray WM, Kepinski S, Rouse D, Leyser O, Estelle M (2001) Auxin regulates SCF(TIR1)-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA proteins. Nature 414:271–276
Hao ZB, Cang J, Sun X (2002) The abnormal root gravitropism in a no-lateral-root mutant of rice. Acta Phytophysiol Sin 28:205–210
Hochholdinger F, Park WJ, Feix GH (2001) Cooperative action of SLR1 and SLR2 is required for lateral root-specific cell elongation in maize. Plant Physiol 125:1529–1539
Huang JQ, Wei ZM, An HL, Xu SP, Zhang B (2000) High efficiency of genetic transformation of rice using Agrobacterium mediated procedure. Acta Bot Sin 42:1172–1178
Jefferson RA (1989) The GUS reporter gene system. Nature 342:837–838
Kania T, Russenberger D, Peng S, Apel K, Melzer S (1997) FPF1 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 9:1327–1338
Marchant A, Bhalerao R, Casimiro I, Eklof J, Casero PJ, Bennett M, Sandberg G (2002) AUX1 promotes lateral root formation by facilitating indole-3-acetic acid distribution between sink and source tissues in the Arabidopsis seedling. Plant Cell 14:589–597
Melzer S, Kampmann G, Chandler J, Apel K (1999) FPF1 modulates the competence to flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant J 18:395–405
Melzer S, Majewski DM, Apel K (1990) Early changes in gene expression during the transition from vegetative to generative growth in the long-day plant Sinapis alba. Plant Cell 2:953–961
Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15:473–479
Roberts CS, Rajagopal S, Yang W, Nugroho S, Smith L, Nguyent T, Ravi KS, Dransfield L, Harcourt R, Vijayachandra K, Patell V, Salland C, Desamero N, Slamet I, Keese P, Kilian A, Jefferson RA (1997) A comprehensive new set of modular vectors to allow both routine and advanced manipulations and efficient transformation of rice by both Agrobacterium and direct gene-transfer methods. Rockefeller Foundation Meeting of the International Program on Rice Biotechnology, September 15–19 (1997) Malacca, Malaysia
Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning, a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.
Wu CY, Chen Y (1987) A study on the genotypical difference in anther culture of keng rice (Oryza sativa ssp. keng) (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Genetica Sin 14:168–174
Yong WD, Chong K, Xu ZH, Tan KH, Zhu ZQ (2000) Gene control of flowering time in higher plants. Chin Sci Bull 45:455–466
Zhang H, Forde BG (1998) An Arabidopsis MADS box gene that controls nutrient-induced changes in root architecture. Science 279:407–409
Zhu ZQ, Wang JJ, Sun JS, Xu Z, Yin GC, Zhu ZY, Bi FY (1975) Establishment of an efficient medium for anther culture of rice through comparative experiments on the nitrogen sources (in Chinese with English abstract). Sci Sin 18:659–668
The authors are grateful to Dr. S. Melzer, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute for Plant Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland, for his kind gift of the plasmid with AtFPF1. We also thank Dr. C.B. Chen, Penn State University, Dr. L.N. Tian, Agriculture & Agri-food Canada, and Dr. C Larue, University of Missouri for their critical reading of the manuscript. This project was supported by the Major State Basic Research Program of P.R. China (G19990116), partially by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC, 30270143), and the Innovation Grant of CAS, as well as the State High-Tech Project (2001AA222281).
Ming-Li Xu and Jia-Fu Jiang contributed equally to this work
Communicated by P. Lakshmanan
About this article
Cite this article
Xu, M., Jiang, J., Ge, L. et al. FPF1 transgene leads to altered flowering time and root development in rice. Plant Cell Rep 24, 79–85 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-004-0906-8
- Root development
- Transgenic plant