Cost-effective in vitro propagation methods for pineapple


We have developed an efficient and cost-effective method for commercial micropropagation of Smooth Cayenne pineapple. In vitro shoots were used as starting materials, and either longitudinal sections of the shoots or leaf bases were used as the explants to regenerate shoots. When these explants were used, the axillary meristems, which usually remain quiescent during shoot multiplication, were able to form new shoots. Subsequent to the regeneration step, additional multiplication was achieved inside a 10-l Nalgene vessel with shoots immersed in liquid medium for 5–10 min/h (periodic immersion bioreactor, PIB). The shoots were then induced to form roots and transferred to soil. Using the above micropropagation method and the PIB, we produced 6,000–8,000 shoots from two initial shoots in less than 6 months. The clonal fidelity of propagated plants was tested in Costa Rican and Indonesian pineapple farms.

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Fig. 1A–I.
Fig. 2A–D.
Fig. 3.


BA, B :


GA 3 , G :

Gibberellic acid

IBA, I :

Indole-3-butyric acid

NAA, N :

α-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Periodic immersion bioreactor

TDZ, T :



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We thank Julie Nicholas and Matthew Heckert for their excellent technical assistance, Matthew Heckert for the PIB drawing, and our collaborators at Agribiotecnología de Costa Rica, in particular Oscar Arias, and at Fitotek Unggul in Indonesia, in particular Kariana Safarwan, for their valuable discussions during this project and evaluation of the plants in the field. The project was partially funded by the United States Agency for International Development (grant nos. DAN-4197-A-00-1126-00 and LAG-4197-A-00-2032-00).

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Correspondence to E. Firoozabady.

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Communicated by G.C. Phillips

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Firoozabady, E., Gutterson, N. Cost-effective in vitro propagation methods for pineapple. Plant Cell Rep 21, 844–850 (2003).

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  • Ananas comosus
  • Bioreactor
  • Shoot culture
  • Micropropagation
  • Plant regeneration