2D:4D finger length ratio and radiographic hand osteoarthritis
To evaluate the association between the index and ring finger’s (2D:4D) length ratio with the prevalence and severity of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). A population-based sample included 802 males (mean age 46.98 ± 17.10 years) and 738 females (mean age 48.65 ± 16.62 years) who had participated in a Chuvashian skeletal aging study. Age, sex, basic demographics, anthropometric data and X-rays of both hands were acquired. Each hand was visually classified on X-ray as either type 1—index finger longer than the ring finger; type 2—index and ring finger equal in length; or type 3—index finger shorter than the ring finger. Hand OA was defined by the number of affected joints (Kellgren–Lawrence score ≥ 2) in both hands and the sum total of Kellgren–Lawrence scores (total OA score). After comparing the OA variables of individuals with different finger length ratio types (after adjustment for age and BMI) significant differences were found only in females between finger ratio types of the right hand in a number of affected joints (F = 3.153, p = 0.043) and finger ratio types of the left (F = 3.330, p = 0.036) and right (F = 2.397, p = 0.047) hands of the total OA score. Females with type 3 ratios had the highest adjusted values of hand OA parameters. We found that finger length ratios are associated with hand OA parameters. Females with a type 3 finger length pattern showed significantly higher hand OA values than those with types 1 and 2.
Keywords2D:4D Finger length ratio Hand Osteoarthritis Chuvash
The authors thank Mrs Phyllis Curchack Kornspan for her editorial services.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The author(s) declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
- 9.Hussain SM, Wang Y, Muller DC, Wluka AE, Giles GG, Manning JT, Graves S, Cicuttini FM (2014) Association between index-to-ring finger length ratio and risk of severe knee and hip osteoarthritis requiring total joint replacement. Rheumatology (Oxford) 53(7):1200–1207. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keu021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.de Kruijf M, Kerkhof HJ, Peters MJ, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Huggen FJ, van Meurs JB (2014) Finger length pattern as a biomarker for osteoarthritis and chronic joint pain: a population-based study and meta-analysis after systematic review. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 66(9):1337–1343. doi: 10.1002/acr.22320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Sigurjonsdottir K, Bjorgulfsson TM, Aspelund T, Eiriksdottir G, Sigurdsson S, Ingvarsson T, Harris TB, Launer L, Gudnason V, Jonsson H (2013) Type 3 finger length pattern is associated with total knee replacements due to osteoarthritis but not with hip replacements or hand osteoarthritis in the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 14:112. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-14-112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Pavlovsky O, Kobyliansky E (1997) Population biology of human aging angelo pontecorboli editore. Firenze, ItalyGoogle Scholar
- 21.Kellgren J, Lawrence J (1963) Atlas of standard radiographs: the epidemiology of chronic rheumatism, vol 2. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar