The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire was developed directly from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands to measure quality of life (QoL). Since then, it has become widely used in clinical studies and trials and has been adapted for use in 24 languages. The objective was to develop and validate 11 additional language versions of the RAQoL in US English, Mexican Spanish, Argentinean Spanish, Belgian French, Belgian Flemish, French, Romanian, Czech, Slovakian, Polish and Russian. The language adaptation and validation required three stages: translation, cognitive debriefing interviews and validation survey. The translation process involved a dual-panel methodology (bilingual panel followed by a lay panel). The validation survey tested the psychometric properties of the new scales and included either the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) or the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) as comparators. Internal consistency of the new language versions ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 and test–retest reliability from 0.85 to 0.99. RAQoL scores correlated as expected with the HAQ. Correlations with NHP sections were as expected: highest with energy level, pain and physical mobility and lowest with emotional reactions, sleep disturbance, and social isolation. The adaptations exhibited construct validity in their ability to distinguish subgroups of RA patients varying by perceived disease severity and general health. The new language versions of the RAQoL meet the high psychometric standards of the original UK English version. The new adaptations represent valid and reliable tools for measuring QoL in international clinical trials involving RA patients.
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Health Assessment Questionnaire
Patient-reported outcome measure
Quality of life
Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life scale
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This research was supported by Omnicare Clinical Research Ltd.
Conflict of interest
The authors received research funding from Omnicare Clinical Research Ltd.
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Wilburn, J., McKenna, S.P., Twiss, J. et al. Further international adaptation and validation of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire. Rheumatol Int 35, 669–675 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-014-3138-4
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Quality of life
- Patient-reported outcomes