Ayurvedic interventions for osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Ayurveda is one of the fastest growing systems within complementary and alternative medicine. However, the evidence for its effectiveness is unsatisfactory. The aim of this work was to review and meta-analyze the effectiveness and safety of different Ayurvedic interventions in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). 138 electronic databases were searched through August 2013. Randomized controlled trials, randomized crossover studies, cluster-randomized trials, and non-randomized controlled clinical trials were eligible. Adults with pre-diagnosed OA were included as participants. Interventions were included as Ayurvedic if they were explicitly labeled as such. Main outcome measures were pain, physical function, and global improvement. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. 19 randomized and 14 non-randomized controlled trials on 12 different drugs and 3 non-pharmaceutical interventions with a total of 2,952 patients were included. For the compound preparation, Rumalaya, large and apparently unbiased effects beyond placebo were found for pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] −3.73; 95 % confidence interval [CI] −4.97, −2.50; P < 0.01) and global improvement (risk ratio 12.20; 95 % CI 5.83, 25.54; P < 0.01). There is also some evidence that effects of the herbal compound preparation Shunti-Guduchi are comparable to those of glucosamine for pain (SMD 0.08; 95 % CI −0.20, 0.36; P = 0.56) and function (SMD 0.15; 95 % CI −0.12, 0.36; P = 0.41). Based on single trials, positive effects were found for the compound preparations RA-11, Reosto, and Siriraj Wattana. For Boswellia serrata, Lepidium Sativum, a Boswellia serrata containing multicomponent formulation and the compounds Nirgundi Taila, Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu, and Rhumayog, and for non-pharmacological interventions like Ayurvedic massage, steam therapy, and enema, no evidence for significant effects against potential methodological bias was found. No severe adverse events were observed in all trials. The drugs Rumalaya and Shunti-Guduchi seem to be safe and effective drugs for treatment of OA-patients, based on these data. However, several limitations relate to clinical research on Ayurveda. Well-planned, well-conducted and well-published trials are warranted to improve the evidence for Ayurvedic interventions.

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Abbreviations

ACR:

American College of Rheumatology

CAM:

Complementary and alternative medicine

CCT:

Controlled clinical trial

CI:

Confidence interval

DHARA:

Digital helpline for Ayurveda research articles

OA:

Osteoarthritis

NSAID:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

RCT:

Randomized controlled trial

RR:

Risk ratio

SMD:

Standardized mean difference

TCM:

Traditional Chinese medicine

TIM:

Traditional Indian medicine

TM:

Traditional medicine

WHO:

World Health Organization

WMS:

Whole medical system

WOMAC:

Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index

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Correspondence to Christian S. Kessler.

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Kessler, C.S., Pinders, L., Michalsen, A. et al. Ayurvedic interventions for osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int 35, 211–232 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-014-3095-y

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Keywords

  • Ayurveda
  • Complementary medicine
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Systematic review
  • Meta-analysis