Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder?

Abstract

The role of free radicals in fibromyalgia is controversial. In this study, 85 female patients with primary fibromyalgia and 80 age-, height-, and weight-matched healthy women were evaluated for oxidant/antioxidant balance. Malondialdehyde is a toxic metabolite of lipid peroxidation used as a marker of free radical damage. Superoxide dismutase is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme and shows antioxidant capacity. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale. Tender points were assessed by palpation. Age, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and duration of disease were also recorded. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher and superoxide dismutase levels significantly lower in fibromyalgic patients than controls. Age, BMI, smoking, and duration of disease did not affect these parameters. We found no correlation between pain and number of tender points. In conclusion, oxidant/antioxidant balances were changed in fibromyalgia. Increased free radical levels may be responsible for the development of fibromyalgia. These findings may support the hypothesis of fibromyalgia as an oxidative disorder.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Goldenberg DL (1998) Fibromyalgia and related syndromes. In: Klippel J, Dieppe PA (eds) Rheumatology. Mosby, London

  2. 2.

    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB et al (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis Rheum 33:160–172

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Abraham G, Flechas J (1992) Management of fibromyalgia. Rationale for use of magnesium and malic acid. J Nutr Med 3:49–59

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Fridovich I (1978) The biology of oxygen radicals. Science 201:875–880

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Jenkinson SG (1988) Oxygen toxicity. J Intensive Care Med 3:137–152

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Jackson MJ, O’Farrell SO (1993) Free radicals and muscle damage. Br Med Bull 49:630–641

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Draper HH, Hadley M (1990) Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 186:421–430

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dib M, Garrel C, Favier A, Robin V, Desnuelle C (2002) Can malondialdehyde be used as a biological marker of progression in neurodegenerative disease? J Neurol 249:367–374

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Marklund SL (1990) Analysis of extracellular superoxide dismutase in tissue homogenates and extracellular fluids. Methods Enzymol 186:209–227

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ali M, Ali O (1999) Fibromyalgia: an oxidative-dysoxygenative disorder (ODD). J Integr Med 3:17–37

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Huskisson EC (1983) Visual analogue scales. In: Melzack R (ed) Pain measurement and assessment. Raven, New York, pp 33–37

  12. 12.

    Yagi K (1994) Lipid peroxides and related radicals in clinical medicine. In: Armstrong D (ed) Free radicals in diagnostic medicine. Plenum, New York, pp 1–15

  13. 13.

    Marklund S, Marklund G (1974) Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47:469–474

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Southorn PA, Powis G (1988) Free radicals in medicine. Involvement in human disease. Mayo Clinic Proc 63:390–408

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ma TY, Hollander T, Freeman D (1991) Oxygen free radical injury of IEC 18 small intestinal cell monolayers. Gastroenterology 100:1533–1543

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Fassbender HG, Wegner K (1973) Morphology and pathogenesis of soft tissue rheumatism [abstract]. Z Rheumaforsch 32:355–374

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lund N, Bengtsson A, Thorborg P (1986) Muscle tissue oxygen pressure in primary fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 15:165–173

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Jeschonneck M, Grohmann G, Hein G, Sprott H (2000) Abnormal microcirculation and temperature in skin above tender points in patients with fibromyalgia. Rheumatology 39:917–921

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bengtsson A, Henriksson KG, Larsson J (1986) Reduced high energy phosphate levels in the painful muscles of patients with primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 15:1–6

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Eisinger J, Zakarian H, Pouly E, Plantamura A, Ayavou T (1996) Protein peroxidation, magnesium deficiency and fibromyalgia. Magnes Res 9:313–316

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Ayavou T (1994) Glycolysis abnormalities in fibromyalgia. J Am Coll Nutr 13:144–148

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Marie PA, Ayavou T (1994) Selenium and magnesium status in fibromyalgia. Magnes Res 7:285–288

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Augustin W, Wiswedel I, Noack H, Reinhenckel T, Reichelt O (1997) Role of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in the defense against functional damage and lipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria. Mol Cell Biochem 174:199–205

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Selda Bagis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bagis, S., Tamer, L., Sahin, G. et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder?. Rheumatol Int 25, 188–190 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-003-0427-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Oxidant