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Ankylosing spondylitis in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt


Background. Among the pharaohs of the 18th and 19th dynasty of Old Egypt, at least three had ankylosing spondylitis: Amenhotep (Amenophis) II, Ramses II ("The Great"), and his son Merenptah.

Objective. An illustrated review is given on the radiological indications for their disease, together with the rough history of these pharaohs, the history of their tombs, of the detection of their mummies in the 19th century and of their paleopathological investigation.

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Feldtkeller, E., Lemmel, EM. & Russell, A.S. Ankylosing spondylitis in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Rheumatol Int 23, 1–5 (2003).

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  • Ankylosing spondylitis Paleopathology Egypt Pharaohs Amenhotep II Ramses II Merenptah