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A glance at genome editing with CRISPR–Cas9 technology

Abstract

In recent years, CRISPR–Cas9 technology is widely acknowledged for having major applications in the field of biotechnology for editing genome of any organism to treat a variety of complex diseases and for other purposes. The acronym ‘CRISPR–Cas’ stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated genes. This genetic organization exists in prokaryotic organisms and aids in the development of adaptive immunity since a protein called Cas9 nuclease cleaves specific target nucleic acid sequences from foreign invaders and destroys them. This mode of action has gained interest of the researchers to understand the insights of CRISPR–Cas9 technology. Here, we review that CRISPR–Cas organization is restricted to two classes and possesses different protein effectors. We also review the architecture of CRISPR loci, mechanism involved in genome editing by CRISPR–Cas9 technology and pathways of repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during the process of genome editing. This review also presents the strategies to increase the Cas9 specificity and reduce off-target activity to achieve accurate genome editing. Further, this review provides information on CRISPR tools used for genome editing, databases that are required for storing data on loci, strategies for delivering CRISPR–Cas9 to cells under study and applications of CRISPR–Cas9 to various fields. Safety measures are implemented on this technology to avoid misuse or ethical issues. We also discuss about the future aspects and potential applications of CRISPR–Cas9 technology required mainly for the treatment of dreadful diseases, crop improvement as well as genetic improvement in human.

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India, for providing necessary facilities for this review work.

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Correspondence to Supriyo Chakraborty.

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Authors declare no conflict of interest in this work.

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Communicated by M. Kupiec.

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Barman, A., Deb, B. & Chakraborty, S. A glance at genome editing with CRISPR–Cas9 technology. Curr Genet 66, 447–462 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-01040-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-01040-3

Keywords

  • CRISPR
  • Cas9
  • Target
  • Off-target
  • Genome editing