Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding regions outside the origin
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Chromosome replication in Eubacteria is initiated by initiator protein(s) binding to specific sites within the replication origin, oriC. Recently, initiator protein binding to chromosomal regions outside the origin has attracted renewed attention; as such binding sites contribute to control the frequency of initiations. These outside-oriC binding sites function in several different ways: by steric hindrances of replication fork assembly, by titration of initiator proteins away from the origin, by performing a chaperone-like activity for inactivation- or activation of initiator proteins or by mediating crosstalk between chromosomes. Here, we discuss initiator binding to outside-oriC sites in a broad range of different taxonomic groups, to highlight the significance of such regions for regulation of bacterial chromosome replication. For Escherichia coli, it was recently shown that the genomic positions of regulatory elements are important for bacterial fitness, which, as we discuss, could be true for several other organisms.
KeywordsBacterial chromosomes Replication control Initiator protein Outside-oriC regions Genomic position
The authors were funded by grants from the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Lundbeck Foundation and from the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF120) through the Center for Bacterial Stress Response and Persistence (BASP).
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