Sequencing and analysis of the complete organellar genomes of Parmales, a closely related group to Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
We sequenced the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes of the unicellular marine phytoplankton Triparma laevis, belonging to the order Parmales (Heterokonta). The cells of Parmales are surrounded by silicified cell walls, similar to Bacillariophyta (diatoms). T. laevis was recognized as a sister group of Bacillariophyta using a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA and rbcL sequences. Bacillariophyta are the most successful group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, but the origin and early evolution of them have not been clearly established. Detailed molecular analyses of T. laevis may increase our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among Parmales and Bacillariophyta. The gene contents of the plastid and mitochondrial genomes are similar between T. laevis and Bacillariophyta. The gene order of the plastid genome is also similar to Bacillariophyta, whereas the gene order of the mitochondrial genome is not conserved in Bacillariophyta, but the structure is more compact than Bacillariophyta. Phylogenetic analyses, using plastid-encoded concatenated amino acid datasets and mitochondria-encoded concatenated amino acid datasets suggest that T. laevis is a sister group of Bacillariophyta. These results suggest that the characteristics of the organellar genomes of T. laevis are similar and conserve ancestral characteristics more than Bacillariophyta.
KeywordsGenome sequencing Heterokonta Mitochondrial genome Parmales Plastid genome Triparma laevis
This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE Program, “From the Earth to Earths” and Scientific Research (No. 26291085) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan and the Canon Foundation (A. K. and N. S.).
- Kim E, Archibald JM (2009) Diversity and evolution of plastids and their genomes. The chloroplast—interactions with the environment. In: Aronsson H, Sandelius AS (eds) Plant cell monographs, vol 13. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–39Google Scholar
- Nishida S (1986) Nanoplankton flora in the Southern Ocean, with special reference to siliceous varieties. Mem Nat Inst Polar Res Spec Issue 40:56–68Google Scholar