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Electrical and thermal stimuli responsive thermoplastic shape memory polymer composites containing rGO, Fe3O4 and rGO–Fe3O4 fillers

Abstract

This work addresses a facile and broadly applicable method of fabricating a new thermoplastic shape memory polymer (SMP) composite by blending three biopolymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol. Reduced Graphene (rGO) is used as electrical conductive fillers. Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) and rGO-Fe3O4 combination provides thermo-electric stimulus. Under the thermal stimulus, shape recovery rate of the SMP with hybrid fillers was faster, having quick response time (28 s) compared to electrical stimulus response time (75 s). The conductivity of the SMP matrices increased by 7, 10 and 15 orders of magnitude by incorporating Fe3O4, rGO and rGO- Fe3O4 fillers, respectively. Moreover, the proposed shape memory polymer containing rGO-Fe3O4 filler exhibits a higher Young’s modulus (> 80%) compared to neat polymer (1.75 GPa at room temperature and 0.6 GPa at glass transition temperature, Tg). A maximum stress of 2.5 MPa and 4% recoverable strain was achieved in the SMP with 10 and 15 wt% of hybrid fillers and interestingly no stored strain evolves, upon cooling below Tg. The developed SMP may be applied in morphing wing and other smart actuator applications.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to The Director, CSIR-NAL for his encouragement and support. They also express their gratitude to Mr. M. Mahesh, Mrs. V. Sudha and Dr. A. Vanaja for extending the cooperation in UTM experiments, Electrical response and DSC studies, respectively.

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The manuscript is written through contributions of all authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the manuscript. The Funding for this work is supported by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India with Grant no.: ESC-02–12-02 under 12th five year plan.

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Correspondence to S. Raja.

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Antony, G.J.M., Aruna, S.T., Jarali, C.S. et al. Electrical and thermal stimuli responsive thermoplastic shape memory polymer composites containing rGO, Fe3O4 and rGO–Fe3O4 fillers. Polym. Bull. 78, 6267–6289 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-020-03427-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-020-03427-6

Keywords

  • Reduced graphene oxide
  • Iron oxide
  • Thermal and electrical stimuli
  • Mechanical behaviour