The amount of crystallinity and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of shellac have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction, respectively. High-resolution transmission electron microscope has been used to obtain the particle size and distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is used to determine chemical compositions of shellac. Polarized optical microscopy images have been used to see the growth of spherulites at different temperatures. Two-step crystallizations (C1 and C2) were observed for shellac. Both modified Avrami and combined Avrami–Ozawa model have been applied to determine the parameters for crystallization kinetics of shellac. Different cooling rates ranging from 5 to 15 °C min−1 have been used to study the non-isothermal kinetics of shellac. The Avrami exponents for the two crystallizations are determined from the modified Avrami analysis. The values of these exponents are in the range of 2.29–2.54 for both the crystallizations C1 and C2. The rate of crystallization for C1 is greater than that for C2 as observed from modified Avrami and combined Avrami–Ozawa method.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Limmatvapirat S, Limmatvapirat C, Luangtana-anan M, Nunthanid J, Oguchi T, Tozuka Y, Yamamoto K, Puttipipatkhachorn S (2004) Modification of physicochemical and mechanical properties of shellac by partial hydrolysis. Int J Pharm 278:41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2004.02.030
Derry J (2012) A study on the processing methods of shellac and the analysis of selected physical and chemical characteristics. Dissertation, University of Oslo
Sharma SK, Shukla SK, Vaid DN (1983) Shellac-structure, characteristics and modification. Def Sci J 33:261–271
Baboo B, Goswami DN (2010) Processing, chemistry and application of lac. Chandu Press, New Delhi
Singh AN, Upadhye AB, Mhaskar VV, Dev S, Pol AV, Naik VG (1974) Chemistry of lac resin-VII: pure lac resin-3: structure. Tetrahedron 30:3689–3693
Embuscado ME, Huber KC (2009) Edible films and coatings for food applications. Springer, New York
Du Y, Wang L, Mu R, Wang Y, Li Y, Wu D, Wu C, Pang J (2019) Fabrication of novel Konjac glucomannan/shellac film with advanced functions for food packaging. Int J Biol Macromol 131:36–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.142
Soradech S, Nutthanid J, Limmatvapirat S, Luangtana-anan M (2017) Utilization of shellac and gelatin composite film for coating to extend the shelf life of banana. Food Control 73:1310–1317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.10.059
Limmatvapirat S, Limmatvapirat C, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Nuntanid J, Luangtana-anan M (2007) Enhanced enteric properties and stability of shellac films through composite salts formation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 67:690–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2007.04.008
Gately NM, Kennedy JE (2017) The development of a melt-extruded shellac carrier for the targeted delivery of probiotics to the colon. Pharmaceutics 9(4):38. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040038
Labuschagne PW, Naicker B, Kalombo L (2016) Micronization, characterization and in vitro dissolution of shellac from PGSS supercritical CO2 technique. Int J Pharm 499:205–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.12.021
Chattopadhyay S (2011) Introduction to lac and lac culture. Annapurna Press, Jharkhand
Lakshminarayanan TR, Gupta MP (1975) X-ray diffraction studies on shellac/melamine resin blends. J Appl Polym Sci 19:3385–3386
Mondal A, Sohel MA, SenGupta A (2018) Calorimetric studies on Indian lac structure. In: Proceedings of international conference on RAMSB 2018; Mangalore University, Mangalore, Jan 23–25
Goswami DN, Saha SK (2000) An investigation of the melting properties of different forms of lac by differential scanning calorimeter. Surf Coat Int 7:334–336
Weng W, Chen G, Wu D (2003) Crystallization kinetics and melting behaviours of nylon 6/foliated graphite nanocomposites. Polymer 44:8119–8132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2003.10.028
Ahmed J (2017) Glass transition and phase transitions in food and biological materials. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken
Liang H, Xie F, Guo F, Chen B, Luo F, Jin Z (2008) Non-isothermal crystallization behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(trimethyleneterephthalate) Blends. Polym Bull 60:115–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-007-0832-3
Freire E, Bianchi O, Martins JN, Monterio EEC, Forte MMC (2012) Non-isothermal crystallization of PVDF/PMMA blends processed in low and high shear mixers. J Non-Cryst Solids 358:2674–2681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2012.06.021
Lorenzo MLD, Sajkiewicz P, Pietra PL, Gradys A (2006) Irregularly shaped DSC exotherms in the analysis of polymer crystallization. Polym Bull 57:713–721. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-006-0621-4
Lin X, Zhang H, Ke M, Xiao L, Zuo D, Qian Q, Chen Q (2014) Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/mica composites. Polym Bull. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-014-1187-1
Sarkar PC, Shrivastava AK (1997) FTIR spectroscopy of lac resin and its derivatives. Pigment Resin Technol 26(6):378–381
Sarkar PC, Kumar KK (2001) An investigation into the different forms of lac resin using FT-IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Pigment Resin Technol 30(1):25–33
Sarkar PC, Shrivastava AK (2000) FT-IR spectroscopic studies on degradation of lac resin. Part I: thermal degradation. Pigment Resin Technol 29(1):23–28
Derrick MR, Stulik D, Landry JM (1999) Infrared spectroscopy in conservation science. Getty Trust, Los Angeles
Rubio AL, Flanagan BM, Gilbert EP, Gidley MJ (2008) A novel approach for calculating starch crystallinity and its correlation with double helix content: a combined XRD and NMR study. Biopolymers 89(9):761–768. https://doi.org/10.1002/blp.21005
Patel AR, Schatteman D, Vos WHD, Dewettinck K (2013) Shellac as a natural material to structure a liquid oil-based thermo reversible soft matter system. RSC Adv 3:5324–5327. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ra40934a
Langhe D (2017) Fractionated crystallization in polymer blends. In: Thomas S, Mohammed Arif P, Gowd EB, Kalarikkal N (eds) Crystallization in multiphase polymer systems, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 239–267
Zhao C, Zhang P, Yi L, Xu F, Wang X, Yong J (2008) Study on the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of novel polyamide 6/silica nanocomposites containing epoxy resins. Polym Test 27:412–419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2008.01.001
Supaphol P, Dangseeyun N, Srimoaon P (2004) Non-isothermal melt crystallization kinetics for poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) blends. Polym Test 23:175–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9418(03)00078-3
Wang L, Zhang F, Bai Y, Ding L (2016) Non-isothermal melt-crystallization kinetics of poly (ethylene terephthalate-co-sodium-5-sulfo-iso-phthalate). Thermocimica Acta 645:43–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2016.10.011
Papageorgiou GZ, Achilias DS, Bikiaris DN (2007) Crystallization kinetics of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) under isothermal and non-Isothermal Conditions. Macromol Chem Phys 208:1250–1264. https://doi.org/10.1002/macp.200700084
Avrami M (1939) Kinetics of phase change. I: general theory. J Chem Phys 7:1103–1112. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1750380
Avrami M (1940) Kinetics of phase change. II: transformation-time relations for random distribution of nuclei. J Chem Phys 8:212–224. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1750631
Jeziorny A (1978) Parameters characterizing the kinetics of the non-isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) determined by DSC. Polymer 19:1142–1144
Haoa W, Yang W, Cai H, Huang Y (2010) Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/silicon nitride nanocomposites. Polym Test 29:527–533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2010.03.004
Liu T, Mo Z, Wang S, Zhang H (1979) Nonisothermal melt and cold crystallization kinetics of poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone). Polym Eng Sci 37:568–575. https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.11700
Layachi A, FrihiD Satha H, Seguela R, Gherib S (2016) Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyamide 66/glass fibres/carbon black composites. J Therm Anal Calorim 124:1319–1329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-016-5286-0
The authors wish to acknowledge SERB/DST sponsored Project No. SB/S2/CMP-027/2014 for the DSC facility and DST-FIST PROGRAMME for XRD facility. The authors are thankful to Prof. M. Goswami of BARC, India, for FTIR measurement of shellac.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Mondal, A., Sohel, M.A., Mohammed, A.P. et al. Crystallization study of shellac investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Polym. Bull. 77, 5127–5143 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-019-03001-9
- Polarized optical microscopy